The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1000. Positive for Cells transfected with Vpu
Retroviruses have several characteristic structural and catalytic proteins. One such auxiliary protein is a viral protein U (Vpu) which enhances virion release from human cells and is also involved in the degradation of CD4, the cellular surface receptor of HIV-1. The Vpu has no homolog in less pathogenic HIV-2 virus. Vpu is an 81 amino acid class I membrane integral protein that is unique to human and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from Chimpanzee and a few other monkey species. The 16kDa protein Vpu protein consists of an N-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor of 27 amino acids and a charged C-terminal hydrophilic domain of 54 amino acids that extents to the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic domain has a conserved dual serine phosphorylation site (S52 GXX and S56 motif) that is phosphorylated by casein kinase II. Vpu is involved in viral replication and degradation of its cellular receptor CD4 and enhancement of viral particle release from macrophages and primary lymphocytes.