• Form
  • Storage instructions
    Store at room temperature.
  • Storage buffer
    pH: 6.00
    Constituent: 1% Hydrochloric acid
    Note: Buffer 100X concentrated.
  • Concentration information loading...
  • Research areas
  • Relevance
    Citrate buffer is used on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections mounted on glass slides for target retrieval prior to immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedures. Target retrieval prior to IHC procedures obtains positive results, or results in an increase in staining intensity with many primary antibodies.


Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab64236 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P Use at an assay dependent dilution.


  • Immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissue section labeling PCNA with ab18197 at 1/250. Antigen retrieval was performed with antigen retrieval buffer, ab64236. A and B, PCNA staining in right and left grafts 1 day after reperfusion. E and F, PCNA staining in right and left grafts 5 day after reperfusion.




  • Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse lung. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, paraffinized and sliced at 1.5 µm thick. Antigen retrieval was performed using ab64214 for the deparaffinized slices. Sections were blocked with 2% normal goat serum, PBS(-) and 0.1% Tween20. They were then incubated with the primary antibodies for 1 hour at 4°C and with secondary antibodies for 30 minutes at room temperature. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with peroxidase streptavidin and the DAB substrate kit ab64238 was performed.

    (A) A resected lung from a mouse sacrificed 28 days after SCL injection.

    (B) Haemotoxylin and Eosin staining showing the tumor composed of a central area with necrosis and a peripheral zone filled with SCLs.

    (C) Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-14 showing positive expression of MMP-14 in the peripheral zone of the tumor and negative in central zone.

    (D) Immunohistochemical staining weak staining of MMP-2 in the peripheral zone.

    This image was produced using ab64214 (a lower concentration of ab64236 ). Therefore, we expect ab64236 to work as well when diluted to the required concentration. 


This product has been referenced in:
  • Celebi AR  et al. Evaluation of the 'Hedgehog' signaling pathways in squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids and conjunctiva. Oncol Lett 12:467-472 (2016). Read more (PubMed: 27347166) »
  • Jujo T  et al. The role of matrix metalloproteinase in the intimal sarcoma-like cells derived from endarterectomized tissues from a chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patient. PLoS One 9:e87489 (2014). Read more (PubMed: 24489925) »

See all 4 Publications for this product

Customer reviews and Q&As

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I have received a reply from a colleague who run the test in lab, for checking the change in pH when this product is diluted. They have confirmed that, with the dilution there was only a fraction of chan...

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The basic protocol for using a microwave with this buffer is as follows:

1. Deparaffinize and rehydrate tissue sections.
2. Dilute the product 1:100 with deionized water. Example: 2 ml of concentr...

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