Has greatest activity toward short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative such as (s)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA as well as toward short straight chain acyl-CoAs such as butyryl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA. Can use valproyl-CoA as substrate and may play a role in controlling the metabolic flux of valproic acid in the development of toxicity of this agent.
Defects in ACADSB are the cause of short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) [MIM:610006]; also known as 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or 2-methylbutyryl glycinuria. SBCADD is an autosomal recessive disorder and consists of a defect in catabolism of L-isoleucine which is characterized by an increase of 2-methylbutyrylglycine and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine in blood and urine. Affected individuals have seizures and psychomotor delay as the main clinical features.