Product nameGGA3 PBD Agarose Beads
Background: Small GTP-binding proteins (or GTPases) are a family of proteins that serve as molecular regulators in signalling transduction pathways. Arf, a 20 kDa protein of the Ras superfamily, regulates a variety of biological response pathways that include vesicle trafficking, organelle structure, and endocytosis. Like other small GTPases, Arf regulates molecular events by cycling between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form. In their active (GTP-bound) state, Arf1 and Arf6 bind specifically to the protein-binding domain (PBD) of GGA3 to control downstream signaling cascades.
Use: Our GGA3 PBD Agarose beads are designed to pull down only the active form of Arf.
Description: Our GGA3 PBD Agarose beads are colored for easy visualization, minimizing potential loss during washes and aspirations during Arf-GTP pulldown.
Activity: Product specifically interacts and precipitates GTP-bound Arf from cell lysate.
Concentration: 800 μL of 50% Agarose slurry, 400 μg human GGA3-PBD (amino acid 1-316) in 1X PBS, 50% Glycerol
Protocol for the pull down assay:
1. Aliquot 0.5 – 1 mL of cell lysate to a microcentrifuge tube.
2. Adjust the volume of each sample to 1 mL with 1X lysis buffer. 3. Thoroughly resuspend the agarose bead slurry by vortexing or titrating. 4. Quickly add 40 µL of resuspended bead slurry to each tube.
5. Incubate the tubes at 4°C for 1 hour with gentle agitation.
6. Pellet the beads by centrifugation for 10 seconds at 14,000 x g.
7. Aspirate and discard the supernatant, making sure not to disturb/remove the bead pellet.
8. Wash the bead 3 times with 0.5 mL of 1X lysis buffer, centrifuging and aspirating each time. 9. After the last wash, pellet the beads and carefully remove all the supernatant. 10. Resuspend the bead pellet in 40 µL of 2X reducing SDS-PAGE sample buffer.
12. Boil each sample for 5 minutes.
13. Centrifuge each sample for 10 seconds at 14,000 x g.
For best results with these beads, it is important to first determine the amount of cell lysate that is detectable on the blot before performing the pull down. We recommend running a lysate titration on a Western blot to determine the concentration that gives a good signal. For the GTPase assay, you will then want to add 100-fold that amount. For example, if you run 5, 10 and 20ug of lysate on a Western blot and 10ug gives a good signal, you will use 10ug x 100 = 1mg of lysate per pull down.
The activity level of the small GTPase in the sample will determine how much gets pulled down. The beads are designed to only pull down small GTPase in the GTP-bound (active) form. If the majority of the GTPase in the sample is in the GDP-bound form (inactive), it will not get pulled down, regardless of the amount of lysate loaded. The lysate can be preloaded with GTPγS and used as a positive control.
Sequence alignment of a specific small GTPase indicates that there is at most one or two amino acid variation between various species. Therefore, our beads may be used across many species.
Storage instructionsStore at -20°C. Please refer to protocols.
FunctionPlays a role in protein sorting and trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. Mediates the ARF-dependent recruitment of clathrin to the TGN and binds ubiquitinated proteins and membrane cargo molecules with a cytosolic acidic cluster-dileucine (AC-LL) motif.
Tissue specificityUbiquitously expressed.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the GGA protein family.
Contains 1 GAE domain.
Contains 1 GAT domain.
Contains 1 VHS domain.
DomainThe VHS domain functions as a recognition module for sorting signals composed of an acidic cluster followed by two leucines (AC-LL motif).
The GAT domain is responsible for interaction with ARF-GTP, UBC and RABEP1. Required for recruitment to the TGN it prevents ARF-GTP hydrolysis.
The unstructured hinge region contains clathrin-binding and an autoinhibitory (AC-LL) motifs.
The GAE domain binds accessory proteins regulating GGAs function.
modificationsPhosphorylated by CK2 and dephosphorylated by PP2A (By similarity). Phosphorylation of GGA3 allows the internal AC-LL motif to bind the VHS domain and to inhibit the recognition of cargo signals.
Cellular localizationGolgi apparatus > trans-Golgi network membrane. Endosome membrane.
- Information by UniProt
- ADP ribosylation factor binding protein 3
- ADP ribosylation factor binding protein GGA 3
- ADP ribosylation factor binding protein GGA3
ab211180 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.