Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab22138 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P Use at an assay dependent concentration.


  • Function

    Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis.
  • Tissue specificity

    Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Expression is restricted to intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) at the crypt base. In subjects with HMPS1, by contrast, GREM1 is expressed, not only in basal ISEMFs, but also at very high levels in epithelial cells (predominantly colonocytes), with expression extending most of the way up the sides of the crypt. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts.
  • Involvement in disease

    Polyposis syndrome, mixed hereditary 1
  • Sequence similarities

    Belongs to the DAN family.
    Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.
  • Cellular localization

  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links

  • Alternative names

    • BMP antagonist 1 antibody
    • Cell proliferation inducing gene 2 protein antibody
    • Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein antibody
    • CKTSF1B1 antibody
    • colorectal adenoma and carcinoma 1 antibody
    • Cysteine knot superfamily 1 antibody
    • Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1 antibody
    • Cysteine knot superfamily BMP antagonist 1 antibody
    • DAN domain family member 2 antibody
    • DAND2 antibody
    • Down regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein antibody
    • Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein antibody
    • DRM antibody
    • grem1 antibody
    • GREM1_HUMAN antibody
    • Gremlin 1 homolog, cysteine knot superfamily antibody
    • Gremlin 1 like protein antibody
    • Gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog antibody
    • GREMLIN antibody
    • Gremlin-1 antibody
    • Gremlin1 antibody
    • IHG-2 antibody
    • IHG2 antibody
    • Increased in high glucose 2 antibody
    • Increased in high glucose protein 2 antibody
    • PIG2 antibody
    • Proliferation inducing gene 2 antibody
    • proliferation inducing gene 2 protein antibody
    see all


  • Detection of CKTSF1B1 in human colon cancer tissue using Ab22138.


This product has been referenced in:

  • Hong D  et al. Gremlin1 Delivered by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promoted Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cell Physiol Biochem 47:1785-1799 (2018). Read more (PubMed: 29953975) »
  • Yu Y  et al. Overexpression of Gremlin 1 by sonic hedgehog signaling promotes pancreatic cancer progression. Int J Oncol 53:2445-2457 (2018). Read more (PubMed: 30272371) »
See all 2 Publications for this product

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