Overview

Description

  • Nature
    Recombinant
  • Source
    Escherichia coli
  • Amino Acid Sequence
    • Accession
    • Species
      Human
    • Sequence
      MDVFMKGLSKAKEGVVAAAEKTKQGVAEAAGKTKEGVLYVGSKTKEGVVH GVATVAEKTKEQVTNVGGAVVTGVTAVAQKTVEGAGSIAAATGFVKKDQL GKNEEGAPQEGILEDMPVDPDNEAYEMPSEEGYQDYEPEA
    • Molecular weight
      15 kDa
    • Amino acids
      1 to 140
    • Additional sequence information
      Produced in E. coli.

Specifications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab218819 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

  • Biological activity

    Endogenous alpha-synuclein phosphorylation. 100 µM alpha synuclein protein monomer (ab218818) seeded with 10 nM alpha synuclein protein aggregate (ab218819) in 25 µM Thioflavin T (ab120751) (PBS pH 7.4, 100 µl reaction volume) generated a fluorescence intensity of 13,000 Relative Fluorescence Units after incubation at 37°C with shaking at 600 rpm for 24 hours. Fluorescence was measured by excitation at 450 nm and emission at 485 nm on a microplate reader.

  • Applications

    Functional Studies

    SDS-PAGE

  • Purity
    >95% by SDS-PAGE .
    ab218819 was purified by ion-exchange.
  • Form
    Liquid
  • Additional notes
  • Concentration information loading...

Preparation and Storage

  • Stability and Storage

    Shipped on Dry Ice. Store at -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.

    Constituent: 100% PBS

    This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.

General Info

  • Alternative names
    • Alpha synuclein
    • Alpha-synuclein
    • Alpha-synuclein, isoform NACP140
    • alphaSYN
    • MGC105443
    • MGC110988
    • MGC127560
    • MGC64356
    • NACP
    • Non A beta component of AD amyloid
    • Non A4 component of amyloid
    • Non A4 component of amyloid precursor
    • Non-A beta component of AD amyloid
    • Non-A-beta component of alzheimers disease amyloid , precursor of
    • Non-A4 component of amyloid precursor
    • Non-A4 component of amyloid, precursor of
    • OTTHUMP00000218549
    • OTTHUMP00000218551
    • OTTHUMP00000218552
    • OTTHUMP00000218553
    • OTTHUMP00000218554
    • PARK 1
    • PARK 4
    • PARK1
    • PARK4
    • Parkinson disease (autosomal dominant, Lewy body) 4
    • Parkinson disease familial 1
    • SNCA
    • Snca synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)
    • SYN
    • Synuclein alpha
    • Synuclein alpha 140
    • Synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)
    • SYUA_HUMAN
    see all
  • Function
    May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation.
  • Tissue specificity
    Expressed principally in brain but is also expressed in low concentrations in all tissues examined except in liver. Concentrated in presynaptic nerve terminals.
  • Involvement in disease
    Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1.
    Parkinson disease 1
    Parkinson disease 4
    Dementia Lewy body
  • Sequence similarities
    Belongs to the synuclein family.
  • Domain
    The 'non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque' domain (NAC domain) is involved in fibrils formation. The middle hydrophobic region forms the core of the filaments. The C-terminus may regulate aggregation and determine the diameter of the filaments.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    Phosphorylated, predominantly on serine residues. Phosphorylation by CK1 appears to occur on residues distinct from the residue phosphorylated by other kinases. Phosphorylation of Ser-129 is selective and extensive in synucleinopathy lesions. In vitro, phosphorylation at Ser-129 promoted insoluble fibril formation. Phosphorylated on Tyr-125 by a PTK2B-dependent pathway upon osmotic stress.
    Hallmark lesions of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies contain alpha-synuclein that is modified by nitration of tyrosine residues and possibly by dityrosine cross-linking to generated stable oligomers.
    Ubiquitinated. The predominant conjugate is the diubiquitinated form.
    Acetylation at Met-1 seems to be important for proper folding and native oligomeric structure.
  • Cellular localization
    Cytoplasm, cytosol. Membrane. Nucleus. Cell junction, synapse. Secreted. Membrane-bound in dopaminergic neurons.
  • Information by UniProt

Images

  • ThT emission curves show increased fluorescence (correlated to alpha-synuclein protein aggregation) over time when 10 nM of active alpha-synuclein aggregate (ab218819) is combined with 100 µM of active alpha-synuclein monomer (ab218818) (light blue), as compared to when 100 µM of active alpha-synuclein monomer is combined with 10 nM of control alpha-synuclein aggregate (purple line), or 100 µM of control alpha-synuclein monomer (ab218816) is combined with 10 nM of control alpha-synuclein aggregate (ab218817) (dark blue). ThT ex = 450 nm, em = 485 nm. View protocol.

  • Immunohistochemical analysis of primary rat hippocampal neurons showing lewy body inclusion formation when treated with active Alpha Synuclein Protein Aggregate (ab218819) at 4 µg/ml (D-F), but not when treated with control Alpha Synuclein Protein Aggregate (ab218817) at 4 µg/ml (A-C). Tissue: Primary hippocampal neurons. Species: Sprague-Dawley rat. Fixation: 4% formaldehyde from PFA. Primary antibody: Mouse anti-pSer129 Antibody at 1/1000 24 hours at 4°C. Secondary antibody: FITC Goat Anti-Mouse (green) at 1/700 for 1 hour at RT. Counterstain: Hoechst (blue) nuclear stain at 1/4000 for 1 hour at RT. Localization: Lewy body incluscions. Magnification: 20x.

  • SDS-PAGE analysis of ab218819.

  • TEM of active human alpha synuclein preformed fibrils (ab218819) (top) and control (inactive) human alpha synuclein preformed fibrils (ab218819) (bottom). Fibrils were sonicated and treated with uranyl acetate. The active fibrils are shorter than the inactive fibrils.

  • TEM of active human alpha synuclein preformed fibrils (ab218819) (top) and control (inactive) human alpha synuclein preformed fibrils (ab218819) (bottom). Fibrils were sonicated and treated with uranyl acetate. The active fibrils are shorter than the inactive fibrils.

  • TEM of active human alpha synuclein preformed fibrils (ab218819). Fibrils were sonicated and treated with uranyl acetate.

  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of rat brain injected with active human alpha synuclein PFFs (ab218819). Species: Female Sprague-Dawley Rat. Rat was injected with 2µL active human alpha synuclein PFFs (ab218819) in each of 2 injection sites: AP+1.6, ML+2.4, DV-4.2 from skull; and AP-1.4, ML+0.2, DV-2.8 from skull. 30-days post-injection. Fixation: Saline perfusion followed by 4% PFA fixation for 48 hrs. Secondary Antibody: Biotin-SP Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1:500 for 2 hours in cold room with shaking. ABC signal amplification, DAB staining. Alpha synuclein pathology is seen in the striatum close to an injection site.

References

ab218819 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.

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