The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 10 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml.
ab170190 - Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Use a concentration of 2 - 5 µg/ml. Predicted molecular weight: 67 kDa.
Use a concentration of 5 - 10 µg/ml. For 2 hours.Paraformaldehyde fixed (4%, 20 minutes) and Triton X-100 permeabilized (0.1%, 15 minutes).
Probable oxidoreductase that has a dual role in controlling cellular life and death; during apoptosis, it is translocated from the mitochondria to the nucleus to function as a proapoptotic factor in a caspase-independent pathway, while in normal mitochondria, it functions as an antiapoptotic factor via its oxidoreductase activity. The soluble form (AIFsol) found in the nucleus induces 'parthanatos' i.e., caspase-independent fragmentation of chromosomal DNA. Interacts with EIF3G,and thereby inhibits the EIF3 machinery and protein synthesis, and activates casapse-7 to amplify apoptosis. Plays a critical role in caspase-independent, pyknotic cell death in hydrogen peroxide-exposed cells. Binds to DNA in a sequence-independent manner.
Involvement in disease
Defects in AIFM1 are the cause of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency type 6 (COXPD6) [MIM:300816]. It is a mitochondrial disease resulting in a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by psychomotor delay, hypotonia, areflexia, muscle weakness and wasting.
Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family.
Under normal conditions, a 54-residue N-terminal segment is first proteolytically removed during or just after translocation into the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) by the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP) to form the inner-membrane-anchored mature form (AIFmit). During apoptosis, it is further proteolytically processed at amino-acid position 101 leading to the generation of the mature form, which is confined to the mitochondrial IMS in a soluble form (AIFsol). AIFsol is released to the cytoplasm in response to specific death signals, and translocated to the nucleus, where it induces nuclear apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner.
Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Mitochondrion inner membrane. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm > perinuclear region. Proteolytic cleavage during or just after translocation into the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) results in the formation of an inner-membrane-anchored mature form (AIFmit). During apoptosis, further proteolytic processing leads to a mature form, which is confined to the mitochondrial IMS in a soluble form (AIFsol). AIFsol is released to the cytoplasm in response to specific death signals, and translocated to the nucleus, where it induces nuclear apoptosis. Colocalizes with EIF3G in the nucleus and perinuclear region.
Immunocytochemistry analysis using ab110327 at 5µg/ml staining AIF in HeLa cells (4% paraformaldehyde fixed and Triton X-100 permeabilized). The secondary antibody was (green) Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1 hour. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue). Target protein locates mainly in mitochondria.
IHC image of AIF staining in human heart formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica BondTM system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. The section was then incubated with ab110327, 10µg/ml, for 15 mins at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.
For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.
Luo T et al. PARP-1 overexpression contributes to Cadmium-induced death in rat proximal tubular cells via parthanatos and the MAPK signalling pathway. Sci Rep7:4331 (2017).
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