The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 0.5 - 1 µg/ml. Predicted molecular weight: 58 kDa.
Use a concentration of 2.5 µg/ml.
Transcriptional regulator that binds to DNA as a dimer or as a tetramer, but not as a monomer. Binds to G-doublets in an A/T-rich environment; the preferred motif is a tandem repeat of 5'-. ATTGGTTA-3' combined with a 5'-TTATTA-3' box. Binds to nucleosomes (By similarity). Binds to chromatin and interacts selectively with histone H3 that is not methylated at 'Lys-4', not phosphorylated at 'Thr-3' and not methylated at 'Arg-2'. Functions as a sensor of histone H3 modifications that are important for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Functions as a transcriptional activator and promotes the expression of otherwise tissue-specific self-antigens in the thymus, which is important for self tolerance and the avoidance of autoimmune reactions.
Widely expressed. Expressed at higher level in thymus (medullary epithelial cells and monocyte-dendritic cells), pancreas, adrenal cortex and testis. Expressed at lower level in the spleen, fetal liver and lymph nodes. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 seem to be less frequently expressed than isoform 1, if at all.
Involvement in disease
Defects in AIRE are a cause of autoimmune poly-endocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) [MIM:240300]; also known as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS-1). APECED is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by: (1) autoimmune polyendocrinopathies: hypoparathyroidism, adrenocortical failure, IDDM, gonadal failure, hypothyroidism, pernicious anemia, and hepatitis; (2) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis; (3) ectodermal dystrophies: vitiligo, alopecia, keratopathy, dystrophy of dental enamel, nails and tympanic membranes. In addition, a high proportion of patients develop squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The disease is reported worldwide but is exceptionally prevalent among the Finnish population (incidence 1:25000) and the Iranian jews (incidence 1:9000). Note=Most of the mutations alter the nucleus-cytoplasm distribution of AIRE and disturb its association with nuclear dots and cytoplasmic filaments. Most of the mutations also decrease transactivation of the protein. The HSR domain is responsible for the homomultimerization activity of AIRE. All the missense mutations of the HSR and the SAND domains decrease this activity, but those in other domains do not. The AIRE protein is present in soluble high-molecular-weight complexes. Mutations in the HSR domain and deletion of PHD zinc fingers disturb the formation of these complexes.
The L-X-X-L-L repeats may be implicated in binding to nuclear receptors. The HSR domain is required for localization on tubular structures (N-terminal part) and for homodimerization. Interacts via the first PHD domain with the N-terminus of histone H3 that is not methylated at 'Lys-4'. Disruption of the first PHD domain has been shown to lead to reduced transcriptional activity and to localization of the protein mainly in the cytoplasm in small granules. While the PHD zinc fingers are necessary for the transactivation capacity of the protein, other regions also modulate this function.
Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation could trigger oligomerization.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Associated with tubular structures and in discrete nuclear dots resembling ND10 nuclear bodies. May shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm.
ab78065 at 2.5µg/ml staining AIRE in human thymus by Immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.
Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections) - Anti-AIRE antibody (ab78065)This image is courtesy of an anonymous Abreview
ab78065 staining AIRE in Human tonsil tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-Fr - frozen sections). Tissue was fixed with acetone. Samples were incubated with primary antibody (1/200 in PBS + 1% BSA) for 16 hours at 4°C. A Biotin-conjugated Pig anti-goat polyclonal (1/320) was used as the secondary antibody.
Skogberg G et al. Altered expression of autoimmune regulator in infant down syndrome thymus, a possible contributor to an autoimmune phenotype. J Immunol193:2187-95 (2014).
Read more (PubMed: 25038256) »
Peters JH et al. Human secondary lymphoid organs typically contain polyclonally-activated proliferating regulatory T cells. Blood122:2213-23 (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 23950176) »