Key features and details
- Rabbit polyclonal to APE1
- Suitable for: WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF
- Reacts with: Mouse, Rat, Human
- Isotype: IgG
Product nameAnti-APE1 antibody
See all APE1 primary antibodies
DescriptionRabbit polyclonal to APE1
Tested applicationsSuitable for: WB, IHC-P, ICC/IFmore details
Species reactivityReacts with: Mouse, Rat, Human
Recombinant fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 1-318 of Human APE1 protein (P27695).
- WB: A431, HeLa,Molt-4, Mouse brain, and PC-12 whole cell lysate. ICC/IF-A549 cells. IHC-P: Human Cal27 xenograft.
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
Storage bufferpH: 7.00
Preservative: 0.01% Thimerosal (merthiolate)
Constituents: 1.21% Tris, 0.75% Glycine, 20% Glycerol
Concentration information loading...
PurityImmunogen affinity purified
- Mouse brain tissue lysate - nuclear extract (ab14649)
- HeLa nuclear extract lysate (ab14655)
- PC12 cytoplasmic extract lysate (ab14883)
- PC12 nuclear extract lysate (ab14884)
- HeLa nuclear extract lysate (ab150036)
- HeLa whole cell lysate (ab29545)
- A431 whole cell lysate (ab30132)
- Mouse brain tissue lysate - total protein (ab30151)
- Mouse brain tissue lysate - total protein (0 days) (ab7188)
- Mouse brain tissue lysate - total protein (14 days) (ab7189)
- Mouse brain tissue lysate - total protein (7 days) (ab7190)
- A431 whole cell lysate (ab7909)
- MOLT4 whole cell lysate (ab7912)
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab137708 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|WB||1/1000 - 1/10000. Predicted molecular weight: 35 kDa.|
|IHC-P||1/100 - 1/1000. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.|
|ICC/IF||1/100 - 1/1000.|
FunctionMultifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. The two major activities of APEX1 in DNA repair and redox regulation of transcriptional factors. Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions induced by oxidative and alkylating agents. Initiates repair of AP sites in DNA by catalyzing hydrolytic incision of the phosphodiester backbone immediately adjacent to the damage, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single-stranded RNA molecules. Has a 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity on mismatched deoxyribonucleotides at the 3' termini of nicked or gapped DNA molecules during short-patch BER. Possesses a DNA 3' phosphodiesterase activity capable of removing lesions (such as phosphoglycolate) blocking the 3' side of DNA strand breaks. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation. Acts as a loading factor for POLB onto non-incised AP sites in DNA and stimulates the 5'-terminal deoxyribose 5'-phosphate (dRp) excision activity of POLB. Plays a role in the protection from granzymes-mediated cellular repair leading to cell death. Also involved in the DNA cleavage step of class switch recombination (CSR). On the other hand, APEX1 also exerts reversible nuclear redox activity to regulate DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of transcriptional factors by controlling the redox status of their DNA-binding domain, such as the FOS/JUN AP-1 complex after exposure to IR. Involved in calcium-dependent down-regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) expression by binding to negative calcium response elements (nCaREs). Together with HNRNPL or the dimer XRCC5/XRCC6, associates with nCaRE, acting as an activator of transcriptional repression. Stimulates the YBX1-mediated MDR1 promoter activity, when acetylated at Lys-6 and Lys-7, leading to drug resistance. Acts also as an endoribonuclease involved in the control of single-stranded RNA metabolism. Plays a role in regulating MYC mRNA turnover by preferentially cleaving in between UA and CA dinucleotides of the MYC coding region determinant (CRD). In association with NMD1, plays a role in the rRNA quality control process during cell cycle progression. Associates, together with YBX1, on the MDR1 promoter. Together with NPM1, associates with rRNA. Binds DNA and RNA.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the DNA repair enzymes AP/ExoA family.
DomainThe N-terminus contains the redox activity while the C-terminus exerts the DNA AP-endodeoxyribonuclease activity; both function are independent in their actions. An unconventional mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) is harbored within the C-terminus, that appears to be masked by the N-terminal sequence containing the nuclear localization signal (NLS), that probably blocks the interaction between the MTS and Tom proteins.
modificationsPhosphorylated. Phosphorylation by kinase PKC or casein kinase CK2 results in enhanced redox activity that stimulates binding of the FOS/JUN AP-1 complex to its cognate binding site. AP-endodeoxyribonuclease activity is not affected by CK2-mediated phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Thr-233 by CDK5 reduces AP-endodeoxyribonuclease activity resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and contributing to neuronal death.
Acetylated on Lys-6 and Lys-7. Acetylation is increased by the transcriptional coactivator EP300 acetyltransferase, genotoxic agents like H(2)O(2) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Acetylation increases its binding affinity to the negative calcium response element (nCaRE) DNA promoter. The acetylated form induces a stronger binding of YBX1 to the Y-box sequence in the MDR1 promoter than the unacetylated form. Deacetylated on lysines. Lys-6 and Lys-7 are deacetylated by SIRT1.
Cleaved at Lys-31 by granzyme A to create the mitochondrial form; leading in reduction of binding to DNA, AP endodeoxynuclease activity, redox activation of transcription factors and to enhanced cell death. Cleaved by granzyme K; leading to intracellular ROS accumulation and enhanced cell death after oxidative stress.
Cys-65 and Cys-93 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and lead to the exposure of the nuclear export signal (NES).
Ubiquitinated by MDM2; leading to translocation to the cytoplasm and proteasomal degradation.
Cellular localizationMitochondrion. The cleaved APEX2 is only detected in mitochondria (By similarity). Translocation from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria is mediated by ROS signaling and cleavage mediated by granzyme A. Tom20-dependent translocated mitochondrial APEX1 level is significantly increased after genotoxic stress and Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus speckle. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm. Detected in the cytoplasm of B-cells stimulated to switch (By similarity). Colocalized with SIRT1 in the nucleus. Colocalized with YBX1 in nuclear speckles after genotoxic stress. Together with OGG1 is recruited to nuclear speckles in UVA-irradiated cells. Colocalized with nucleolin and NPM1 in the nucleolus. Its nucleolar localization is cell cycle dependent and requires active rRNA transcription. Colocalized with calreticulin in the endoplasmic reticulum. Translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is stimulated in presence of nitric oxide (NO) and function in a CRM1-dependent manner, possibly as a consequence of demasking a nuclear export signal (amino acid position 64-80). S-nitrosylation at Cys-93 and Cys-310 regulates its nuclear-cytosolic shuttling. Ubiquitinated form is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm.
- Information by UniProt
- AP endonuclease 1 antibody
- AP endonuclease class I antibody
- AP lyase antibody
All lanes : Anti-APE1 antibody (ab137708) at 1/1000 dilution
Lane 1 : A431 whole cell lysate
Lane 2 : Hela whole cell lysate
Lane 3 : Molt-4 whole cell lysate
Lysates/proteins at 30 µg per lane.
Predicted band size: 35 kDa
10% SDS PAGE
Anti-APE1 antibody (ab137708) at 1/2000 dilution + Mouse brain whole cell lysate at 40 µg
Predicted band size: 35 kDa
10% SDS PAGE
Anti-APE1 antibody (ab137708) at 1/10000 dilution + PC-12 whole cell lysate/extract at 30 µg
Predicted band size: 35 kDa
10 % SDS-PAGE
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Cal27 xenograft labelling APE1 with ab137708 at 1/500.
Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed A549 labelling APE1 with ab137708 at 1/200 (panel 1) and co-stained with a DNA probe (panel 2).
ab137708 has been referenced in 7 publications.
- Li M et al. Distinct APE1 Activities Affect the Regulation of VEGF Transcription Under Hypoxic Conditions. Comput Struct Biotechnol J 17:324-332 (2019). PubMed: 30906512
- Wang L et al. miR-296-3p targets APEX1 to suppress cell migration and invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer. Oncol Lett 18:2612-2618 (2019). PubMed: 31402954
- Han D et al. NEIL1 and NEIL2 DNA glycosylases protect neural crest development against mitochondrial oxidative stress. Elife 8:N/A (2019). PubMed: 31566562
- Li Z et al. Apurinic endonuclease 1 promotes the cisplatin resistance of lung cancer cells by inducing Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Oncol Rep 42:2245-2254 (2019). PubMed: 31578585
- Li M et al. APE1 deficiency promotes cellular senescence and premature aging features. Nucleic Acids Res 46:5664-5677 (2018). PubMed: 29750271
- Li J et al. DNA Repair Molecular Beacon assay: a platform for real-time functional analysis of cellular DNA repair capacity. Oncotarget 9:31719-31743 (2018). PubMed: 30167090
- Lokanga RA et al. Heterozygosity for a hypomorphic Polß mutation reduces the expansion frequency in a mouse model of the Fragile X-related disorders. PLoS Genet 11:e1005181 (2015). WB ; Mouse . PubMed: 25886163