Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.
Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.
Belongs to the apelin family.
Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.