Product nameAnti-Beta Arrestin 2 antibody
See all Beta Arrestin 2 primary antibodies
DescriptionGoat polyclonal to Beta Arrestin 2
SpecificityThis antibody is expected to recognise both reported isoforms (NP_004304 and NP_945355). No cross reactivity is expected with Arrestin beta 1.
Tested applicationsSuitable for: WB, IP, ELISA, IHC-Pmore details
Species reactivityReacts with: Mouse, Rat, Human
- Human brain, skin and spleen lysates. WB: human spleen whole cell lysate; mouse brain whole cell lysate; mouse spleen whole cell lysate.
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Storage bufferpH: 7.30
Preservative: 0.02% Sodium azide
Constituents: Tris buffered saline, 0.5% BSA
Concentration information loading...
PurityImmunogen affinity purified
Purification notesThis antibody was purified from goat serum by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by antigen affinity chromatography using the immunizing peptide.
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab31294 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|WB||Use a concentration of 0.1 - 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 40-48 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 46 kDa).|
|IP||Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 21193245|
|IHC-P||Use a concentration of 4 - 6 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.|
FunctionFunctions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta-arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins) and recruiting the GPRCs to the adapter protein 2 complex 2 (AP-2) in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, the extent of beta-arrestin involvement appears to vary significantly depending on the receptor, agonist and cell type. Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Class A receptors, like ADRB2, OPRM1, ENDRA, D1AR and ADRA1B dissociate from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergo rapid recycling. Class B receptors, like AVPR2, AGTR1, NTSR1, TRHR and TACR1 internalize as a complex with arrestin and traffic with it to endosomal vesicles, presumably as desensitized receptors, for extended periods of time. Receptor resensitization then requires that receptor-bound arrestin is removed so that the receptor can be dephosphorylated and returned to the plasma membrane. Mediates endocytosis of CCR7 following ligation of CCL19 but not CCL21. Involved in internalization of P2RY1, P2RY4, P2RY6 and P2RY11 and ATP-stimulated internalization of P2RY2. Involved in phopshorylation-dependent internalization of OPRD1 and subsequent recycling or degradation. Involved in ubiquitination of IGF1R. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Acts as signaling scaffold for MAPK pathways such as MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and MAPK10 (JNK3). ERK1/2 and JNK3 activated by the beta-arrestin scaffold are largely excluded from the nucleus and confined to cytoplasmic locations such as endocytic vesicles, also called beta-arrestin signalosomes. Acts as signaling scaffold for the AKT1 pathway. GPCRs for which the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on both ARRB1 and ARRB2 (codependent regulation) include ADRB2, F2RL1 and PTH1R. For some GPCRs the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on either ARRB1 or ARRB2 and is inhibited by the other respective beta-arrestin form (reciprocal regulation). Increases ERK1/2 signaling in AGTR1- and AVPR2-mediated activation (reciprocal regulation). Involved in CCR7-mediated ERK1/2 signaling involving ligand CCL19. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated ERK activity. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated MAPK10 activity. Is involved in dopamine-stimulated AKT1 activity in the striatum by disrupting the association of AKT1 with its negative regulator PP2A. Involved in AGTR1-mediated chemotaxis. Appears to function as signaling scaffold involved in regulation of MIP-1-beta-stimulated CCR5-dependent chemotaxis. Involved in attenuation of NF-kappa-B-dependent transcription in response to GPCR or cytokine stimulation by interacting with and stabilizing CHUK. Suppresses UV-induced NF-kappa-B-dependent activation by interacting with CHUK. The function is promoted by stimulation of ADRB2 and dephosphorylation of ARRB2. Involved in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis by regulating MDM2 and reducing the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53/TP53. May serve as nuclear messenger for GPCRs. Upon stimulation of OR1D2, may be involved in regulation of gene expression during the early processes of fertilization. Also involved in regulation of receptors others than GPCRs. Involved in endocytosis of TGFBR2 and TGFBR3 and down-regulates TGF-beta signaling such as NF-kappa-B activation. Involved in endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein receptor/LDLR. Involved in endocytosis of smoothened homolog/Smo, which also requires ADRBK1. Involved in endocytosis of SLC9A5. Involved in endocytosis of ENG and subsequent TGF-beta-mediated ERK activation and migration of epithelial cells. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Involved in insulin resistence by acting as insulin-induced signaling scaffold for SRC, AKT1 and INSR. Involved in regulation of inhibitory signaling of natural killer cells by recruiting PTPN6 and PTPN11 to KIR2DL1.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the arrestin family.
DomainThe [DE]-X(1,2)-F-X-X-[FL]-X-X-X-R motif mediates interaction the AP-2 complex subunit AP2B1.
modificationsPhosphorylated at Thr-382 in the cytoplasm; probably dephosphorylated at the plasma membrane. The phosphorylation does not regulate internalization and recycling of ADRB2, interaction with clathrin or AP2B1.
The ubiquitination status appears to regulate the formation and trafficking of beta-arrestin-GPCR complexes and signaling. Ubiquitination appears to occurr GPCR-specifc. Ubiquitinated by MDM2; the ubiquitination is required for rapid internalization of ADRB2. Deubiquitinated by USP33; the deubiquitination leads to a dissociation of the beta-arrestin-GPCR complex. Stimulation of a class A GPCR, such as ADRB2, induces transient ubiquitination and subsequently promotes association with USP33. Stimulation of a class B GPCR promotes a sustained ubiquitination.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Membrane > clathrin-coated pit. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Translocates to the plasma membrane and colocalizes with antagonist-stimulated GPCRs.
- Information by UniProt
- ARB 2 antibody
- ARB2 antibody
- ARR 2 antibody
Lane 1 : Anti-Beta Arrestin 2 antibody (ab31294) at 0.1 µg/ml
Lanes 2-3 : Anti-Beta Arrestin 2 antibody (ab31294) at 1 µg/ml
Lane 1 : human spleen whole cell lysate in RIPA buffer
Lane 2 : mouse brain whole cell lysate in RIPA buffer
Lane 3 : mouse spleen whole cell lysate in RIPA buffer
Lysates/proteins at 35 µg per lane.
Developed using the ECL technique.
Predicted band size: 46 kDa
Observed band size: 45-48 kDa why is the actual band size different from the predicted?
Primary incubation: 1 hour at room temperature.
ab31294 immunoprecipitating Beta Arrestin 2 in mouse heart whole cell lysate. 50µg of cell lysate was incubated with primary antibody (undiluted) and matrix (Protein A/G Magnetic Beads) for 45 minutes. For western blotting a rabbit anti-Beta Arrestin 2 monoclonal antibody and HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody were used to confirm successful immunoprecipation.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Human cerebellum tissue, staining Beta Arrestin 2 with ab31294 at 4 µg/ml. Staining was detected using HRP. Antigen retrieval was by heat mediation with citrate buffer (pH 6).
This product has been referenced in:
- Philip JL et al. Regulation of cardiac fibroblast-mediated maladaptive ventricular remodeling by ß-arrestins. PLoS One 14:e0219011 (2019). Read more (PubMed: 31269046) »
- Eng AG et al. Transduction of group I mGluR-mediated synaptic plasticity by ß-arrestin2 signalling. Nat Commun 7:13571 (2016). IP ; Mouse . Read more (PubMed: 27886171) »