Key features and details
- Rabbit polyclonal to Bikunin
- Suitable for: WB, ELISA
- Reacts with: Human
- Isotype: IgG
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
Storage bufferConstituent: Whole serum
Concentration information loading...
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab43073 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|WB||1/2000. Predicted molecular weight: 39 kDa.|
FunctionInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor inhibits trypsin, plasmin, and lysosomal granulocytic elastase. Inhibits calcium oxalate crystallization.
Trypstatin is a trypsin inhibitor.
Tissue specificityExpressed by the liver and secreted in plasma. Alpha-1-microglobulin occurs in many physiological fluids including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor is present in plasma and urine.
Sequence similaritiesIn the N-terminal section; belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family.
Contains 2 BPTI/Kunitz inhibitor domains.
modificationsThe precursor is proteolytically processed into separately functioning proteins.
3-hydroxykynurenine, an oxidized tryptophan metabolite that is common in biological fluids, reacts with Cys-53, Lys-111, Lys-137, and Lys-149 to form heterogeneous polycyclic chromophores including hydroxanthommatin. The reaction by alpha-1-microglobulin is autocatalytic; the human protein forms chromophore even when expressed in insect and bacterial cells. The chromophore can react with accessible cysteines forming non-reducible thioether cross-links with other molecules of alpha-1-microglobulin or with other proteins such as Ig alpha-1 chain C region 'Cys-352'.
Heavy chains are interlinked with bikunin via a chondroitin 4-sulfate bridge to the their C-terminal aspartate.
Addition of glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate, allows cross-linking between the different components.
- Information by UniProt
FormBikunin, the light chain of the proteinase inhibitors inter-alpha-inhibitor and pre-alpha-inhibitor, is synthesized in the liver. Its biological function is unclear but it has been shown to inhibit proteases and to have additional activities in vitro. Bikunin is translated as a precursor protein from the same mRNA as alpha 1-microglobulin. This cosynthesis is unique compared to other proproteins since they have no known functional connection.
- Alpha 1 microglobulin/bikunin precursor antibody
- Alpha-1 microglycoprotein antibody
- AMBP antibody
ab43073 has been referenced in 5 publications.
- Smith SM & Melrose J A Retrospective Analysis of the Cartilage Kunitz Protease Inhibitory Proteins Identifies These as Members of the Inter-a-Trypsin Inhibitor Superfamily with Potential Roles in the Protection of the Articulatory Surface. Int J Mol Sci 20:N/A (2019). PubMed: 30678366
- Farrugia BL et al. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope. J Histochem Cytochem 64:85-98 (2016). IHC . PubMed: 26586669
- He H et al. Immobilized heavy chain-hyaluronic acid polarizes lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages toward M2 phenotype. J Biol Chem 288:25792-803 (2013). PubMed: 23878196
- Lord MS et al. Sulfation of the bikunin chondroitin sulfate chain determines heavy chain·hyaluronan complex formation. J Biol Chem 288:22930-41 (2013). PubMed: 23801333
- Yoshihara Y et al. Superficial zone chondrocytes in normal and osteoarthritic human articular cartilages synthesize novel truncated forms of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chains which are attached to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan other than bikunin. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:1343-55 (2008). PubMed: 18524635