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Lung, breast, bowel, and prostate cancer make up almost half of all worldwide incidences of cancer. The need to rapidly diagnose and accurately predict the course of cancer is vitally important for patients.
While some individual markers, like Ki67, play a role in cancer diagnoses, a single biomarker is unlikely to yield conclusive clinical data about the nature or progression of the disease. Instead, a panel of biomarkers can provide the more sensitive and specific information needed for an accurate diagnosis or prognosis.
In addition to traditional protein markers, research is being directed towards identifying microRNA (miRNA) signatures to diagnose and monitor cancer.
Use the table below to quickly identify whole biomarker panels, or individual key markers of cancer to build you own panels.
APOA1, CO4A, CRP, GSTP1, and SAMP
TP53, Ki67, MCM6, MCM7, KIAA1522, and KIAA0317
ER, HER2, Ki67, p53, cyclin D1, COX-2, caveolin-1, survivin, and PPAR-γ
HER2, c-myc, p53, BRCA1, BRCA2, Ny-ESO-1, and MUC1
Ki67, p53, HER2, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, FOXA1, GATA3, and P-cadherin
VEGF, p53, Ki67, and EGFR
IGFBP2, DKK3, and PKM2
CTC numbers, and LDH
AZGP1, MUC1, and p53
PSA, Kallikrien-4, MCM5/7, IL6, sIL6R, and PCA3*
* Not tested in a complete panel, but individual markers could potentially be used in future panels. See reference for more details.
APOA1 = apolipoprotein A-I, CO4A = complement C4-A, CRP = C-reactive protein, SAMP = serum amyloid P-component, TP53 = tumor protein 53 (p53), MCM5/6/7 = minichromosome maintenance complex component 5/6/7, KIAA1522 and KIAA0317 = uncharacterized proteins, ER = estrogen receptor, HER2 = human epidermal growth factor 2, COX-2 = cyclooxygenase 2, PPAR-γ = peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Ny-ESO-1 = a cancer-testis antigen, CK5/6 = cytokeratin 5/6, CK14 = cytokeratin 14, EGFR = epidermal growth factor, FOXA1 = forkhead box protein A1, VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, IGFBP2 = insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, DKK3 = Dickkopf3, PKM2 = pyruvate kinase 2, CTC = circulating tumor cells, LDH = lactate dehydrogenase, AZGP1 = alpha-2-glycoprotein 1, MUC1 = cell surface-associated mucin 1, sILR6 = soluble Interleukin-6 receptor PSA = prostate specific antigen, PCA3 = prostate cancer gene 3
Major markers of cancer
Multiplex miRNA cancer panels
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3. Davis, J. E. et al. Her2 and Ki67 Biomarkers Predict Recurrence of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ. Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol. 24, 20–5 (2016).
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