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PD-L1 is a transmembrane protein which acts by inhibiting T cell activation and proliferation. PD-L1 protein detection by IHC testing is widely used as a predictive biomarker assay for anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapies for several cancer types including lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 75% of all lung cancers and approximately 50% of NSCLC cases will have expression of PD-L1 in histology carried out on patient biopsies making it a strong biomarker for this cancer type.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Human breast carcinoma tissue labeling ErbB 2 with ab16662, followed by a ready-to-use Goat Anti-Rabbit & Mouse IgG (HRP).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-PD-L1 antibody [73-10] (ab228415)
Programmed death-1 receptor is the receptor to transmembrane ligand PD-L1 (above) and is found to be expressed on the surface of T-cells. Tumors use this PD-1/PD-L1 interaction to evade and suppress the immune response. These interactions are commonly seen in NSCLC as described above for PD-L1. Nivolumab; an anti-PD-1 drug is approved for use in squamous NSCLC (Chen et al., 2012).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-PD1 antibody [CAL20] (ab237728)
Surfactant protein A (SPA)
SPA is a large protein expressed within alveoli cells of the lung and is responsible for fighting infectious disease and reducing alveoli surface tension. SPA is also a biomarker used to detect adenocarcinoma in the lung. It is thought to be a marker of good prognosis as SPA is known to reduce tumor progression in the lung by recruiting natural killer cells to the site of the tumor (Mitsuhashi et al., 2013).
Recommended IHC antibody:Anti-Surfactant Protein A/PSAP antibody [6F10] (ab51891)
SOX2 is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the developing embryonic lung. It is also important for the formation of the proximal airways where it is used as a marker of proliferation and lung stem cells. It is also found to be overexpressed in over 80% of patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), a type of NSCLC. It is therefore commonly used as a marker of lung cancer cells derived from this squamous cell lineage (Mollaoglu et al., 2019).
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Human lung carcinoma tissue sections labeling SOX2 with ab93689 at 1:100. Negative control used PBS instead of primary antibody. Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin.
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-SOX2 antibody [SP76] (ab93689)
The MET proto-oncogene is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor and its signaling cascade is involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular migration. It also plays a role in the progression of NSCLC. Overexpression of MET in NSCLC leads to a misregulation of proliferation and cell migration leading to a more aggressive cancer (Salgia et al., 2017).
Recommended IHC antibody: Recombinant Anti-Met (c-Met) antibody [EP1454Y] - N-terminal (ab51067)
Fas (or apoptosis antigen 1 APO-1) is a death receptor expressed on the cell surface which mediates apoptosis. Misregulation of apoptosis in normal cell types can lead to the progression of cancer. (FasL the FAS ligand) overexpression has been shown as a prognosis of advanced cancer stage in NSCLC (Viard-Leveugle et al., 2003).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-Fas antibody [EPR5700] (ab133619)
Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1)
GSTP1 is an enzyme responsible for breaking down toxic compounds. In the lung, GSTP1 is highly expressed and is known to carry out the metabolism of carcinogens carried into the lung through smoking. Certain variants of GSTP1 are used as markers of lung cancer prognosis. The Ile105Val variant is associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and a reduction in mortality from the disease (Nørskov et al., 2017).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-GST3 / GST pi antibody [EPR8263] (ab138491)
Ki67 is an essential protein involved in cell division and is commonly used as a marker of cellular proliferation. IHC staining for Ki-67 is a commonly used method for evaluating proliferative activity in various tumor types including lung tumors. Studies suggest a key role of Ki-67 as a prognostic marker of NSCLC (Kriegsmann et al., 2016).
Recommended IHC antibody:Anti-Ki67 antibody (ab15580)
MCM7 is a chromosomal maintenance protein important during the cell cycle and has been associated with various cancer types including lung cancers. Both MCM7 and ki67 (the proliferation marker) are highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Both are associated with poor prognosis in the disease. MCM7 can also be used as an IHC biomarker from bronchial brushings (Liu et al., 2012).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-MCM7/PRL antibody [EP1974Y] (ab52489)
Achaete-scute complex 1 (ASCL1)
ASCL1 is a transcription factor necessary for neuroendocrine lung development and the growth of both SCLC and NSCLC. It acts as a marker of poor prognosis in NSCLC and looks promising as a potential druggable target for the treatment of NSCLC (Augustyn et al., 2014).
Recommended IHC antibody: Recombinant Anti-ACSL1 antibody [EPR13499] (ab177958)
Increased levels of CRP are an indication of inflammation. It is commonly seen to be expressed in lung cancer patients who smoke. Smoking leads to chronic lung inflammation and the upregulation of several inflammation response genes including CRP. Expression of CRP is a marker of lung squamous cell carcinomas and small-cell cancers but not adenocarcinoma of the lung (Chaturvedi et al., 2010).
Recommended IHC antibody:Recombinant Anti-C Reactive Protein antibody [Y284]
MCM6 is a chromosomal maintenance protein important for the cell cycle and mitosis and has been associated with increasing the metastatic potential of various cancer types including lung cancers. It has been shown to be expressed in around 50% of NSCLC patient samples and high expression levels of MCM6 is linked to a poor prognosis of this disease. Its expression is also seen to be higher in patients who smoke (Liu et al., 2017).
Recommended IHC antibody:Anti-MCM6 antibody [EPR17686] (ab201683)
KIAA1522 is a relatively unknown protein but it has been recently implicated as a potential novel biomarker for NSCLC. This uncharacterized gene has been pulled out of a few large-scale screening studies looking to identify new biomarkers for NSCLC. Further experiments showed that KIAA1522 is highly expressed in the NSCLC tissues and indicates poor survival of NSCLC patients (Liu et al., 2016).
Recommended IHC antibody:Anti-KIAA1522 antibody (ab122203)
Augustyn, A., Borromeo, M., Wang, T., Fujimoto, J., Shao, C., Dospoy, P. D., … Vogt, P. K. (2014). ASCL1 is a lineage oncogene providing therapeutic targets for high-grade neuroendocrine lung cancers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(41), 14788–14793.
Chaturvedi, A. K., Caporaso, N. E., Katki, H. A., Wong, H. L., Chatterjee, N., Pine, S. R., … Engels, E. A. (2010). C-reactive protein and risk of lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28(16), 2719–2726.
Liu, Y. Z., Jiang, Y. Y., Hao, J. J., Lu, S. S., Zhang, T. T., Shang, L., … Wang, M. R. (2012). Prognostic significance of MCM7 expression in the bronchial brushings of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung Cancer, 77(1), 176–182.
Liu, Y. Z., Yang, H., Cao, J., Jiang, Y. Y., Hao, J. J., Xu, X., … Wang, M. R. (2016). KIAA1522 is a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Scientific Reports, 6, 1–13.
Liu, Y. Z., Wang, B. S., Jiang, Y. Y., Cao, J., Hao, J. J., Zhang, Y., … Wang, M. R. (2017). MCMs expression in lung cancer: Implication of prognostic significance. Journal of Cancer, 8(18), 3641–3647.
Mitsuhashi, A., Goto, H., Kuramoto, T., Tabata, S., Yukishige, S., Abe, S., … Nishioka, Y. (2013). Surfactant protein a suppresses lung cancer progression by regulating the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. American Journal of Pathology, 182(5), 1843–1853.
Mollaoglu, G., Jones, A., Wait, S. J., Mukhopadhyay, A., Arya, R., Camolotto, S. A., … Oliver, T. G. (2019). The lineage defining transcription factors SOX2 and NKX2-1 determine lung cancer cell fate and shape the tumor immune microenvironment. Immunity, 49(4), 764–779.
Viard-Leveugle, I., Veyrenc, S., French, L. E., Brambilla, C., & Brambilla, E. (2003). Frequent loss of Fas expression and function in human lung tumours with overexpression of FasL in small cell lung carcinoma. Journal of Pathology, 201(2), 268–277.