Has weak activities on human monocytes and acts via receptors that also recognize MIP-1 alpha. It induced intracellular Ca(2+) changes and enzyme release, but no chemotaxis, at concentrations of 100-1,000 nM, and was inactive on T-lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophil leukocytes. Enhances the proliferation of CD34 myeloid progenitor cells. The processed form HCC-1(9-74) is a chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes eosinophils, and T-cells and is a ligand for CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5.
Expressed constitutively in several normal tissues: spleen, liver, skeletal and heart muscle, gut, and bone marrow, present at high concentrations (1-80 nM) in plasma.
Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family.
The N-terminal processed forms HCC-1(3-74), HCC-1(4-74) and HCC-1(9-74) are produced in small amounts by proteolytic cleavage after secretion in blood. HCC-1(1-74), but not HCC-1(3-74) and HCC-1(4-74), is partially O-glycosylated; the O-linked glycan consists of one Gal-GalNAc disaccharide, further modified by two N-acetylneuraminic acids.