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Cytokine storm has been shown to be a key biological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, represents a major global threat to public health. Patient symptoms and responses to COVID-19 are highly heterogeneous, and the immunological determinants of poor prognosis remain unknown. Severe cases of COVID-19 present with high viral loads, respiratory distress, and pulmonary damage that correlate with surges in patient cytokine levels, termed cytokine storm syndrome.
Download our interactive poster to understand the immune cell signaling and key cytokine targets underlying the cytokine storm response in COVID-19.
Cytokines coordinate the body's response to infection and trigger inflammation, but in some cases, as seen with COVID-19, they appear to be released in excessive or uncontrolled amounts. This cytokine storm can lead to vital organ failure, including of the cardiac, lung and renal systems, and result in death. Initial evidence from China demonstrated elevated levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-2R, CRP and ferritin in severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection.1-3 Further studies have highlighted persistently raised levels of the additional cytokines TNF-alpha, IP-10, MCP-3, and IL-1RA in severe patient cases of COVID-19.4, 5
Many clinicians are analyzing potential treatments for the cytokine storm response seen in patients. Dexamethasone has been shown as to be a cost-effective treatment for many. An alternative approach may be through targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).6 TNF-alpha is important in nearly all acute inflammatory reactions and has been identified in the blood and tissues of COVID-19 patients.7 Antibodies against TNF-alpha have been used for more than 20 years in severe cases of autoimmune inflammatory disease. There are currently 10 FDA-approved and four off-label indications for anti-TNF therapy,8 indicating the validity in targeting this inflammatory factor.
Further research to profile patient responses and advance our understanding is essential to aid in the development of effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic solutions for COVID-19.
To understand more about this response in COVID-19 and get product recommendations download our poster.
Our product range for antibodies and proteins specific for the detection and analysis of human coronaviruses can be found here.
It is now broadly accepted that capturing the complexity of a biological process or defining a disease state cannot be accomplished by measuring a single biomarker. FirePlex® is a multiplex assay technology that allows the simultaneous measurement of numerous candidate protein biomarkers and thus enables biomarker discovery at an unprecedented pace and scale. The content of FirePlex is geared towards the pro-inflammatory cytokines and soluble factors, many of which play a role in COVID-19 disease progression and outcome.
The ability to rapidly and sensitively analyze multiple markers in small volume patient samples is crucial to profiling the cytokines and soluble factors involved in the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 and the detection of cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 cases.
|ab243549||Human||FirePlex Human Key Cytokines - Immunoassay Panel||GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, MCP1, MIP1a, MIP1b, TNF-alpha|
|ab239455||NHP||FirePlex NHP Key Cytokines - Immunoassay Panel||GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1a, MIP1b, TNF-alpha|
|ab234897||Human||Human Cytokines FirePlex-HT Panel 1||IL-8, IFN gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, MCP1, TNF -alpha, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-6|
|Human IL-6 ELISA Kit||ab178013|
|Anti-TNF alpha antibody [52B83]||ab1793|
|Human TNF alpha ELISA Kit||ab181421|
|Anti-IL-2 Receptor alpha antibody [SP176]||ab231441|
|Recombinant Anti-C Reactive Protein antibody [Y284]||ab32412|
|Human C Reactive Protein ELISA Kit||ab181416|
|Recombinant Anti-Ferritin antibody [EPR3004Y]||ab75973|
|Human Ferritin ELISA Kit (FTL)||ab200018|
|Anti-IP10 antibody [6D4]||ab8098|
|Human IP-10 ELISA Kit||ab173194|
|Recombinant Anti-MCP3 antibody||ab228979|
|Human MCP3 ELISA Kit||ab193769|
|Recombinant Anti-IL-1RA antibody [EPR6483]||ab124962|
|Human IL-1ra ELISA Kit||ab211650|
|Human CXCL10 (IP-10) knockout A549 cell line||ab266969|
|ab259377||Recombinant Human Interferon gamma protein (Active)|
|ab259381||Recombinant human IL-6 protein (Active)|
|ab259382||Recombinant human IL-7 protein (Active)|
|ab259387||Recombinant human IL-1 beta protein (Active)|
|ab259410||Recombinant human TNF alpha protein (Active) |
|ab259418||Recombinant human IL-12 protein (Active)|
See a complete list of cytokine products for your research.
Wang L, He W, Yu X et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: characteristics and prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up. J Infect. 2020; (published online March 30.) DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.019