The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. In mammals, the coatomer can only be recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors. Required for limiting lipid storage in lipid droplets. Involved in lipid homeostasis by regulating the presence of perilipin family members PLIN2 and PLIN3 at the lipid droplet surface and promoting the association of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) with the lipid droplet surface to mediate lipolysis.
Belongs to the COPG family. Contains 4 HEAT repeats.
Cytoplasm. Golgi apparatus membrane. Cytoplasmic vesicle > COPI-coated vesicle membrane. The coatomer is cytoplasmic or polymerized on the cytoplasmic side of the Golgi, as well as on the vesicles/buds originating from it.