• Product name

    Anti-Hepatitis B Virus X antigen antibody [X36C]
    See all Hepatitis B Virus X antigen primary antibodies
  • Description

    Mouse monoclonal [X36C] to Hepatitis B Virus X antigen
  • Host species

  • Tested applications

    Suitable for: IHC-P, ELISA, IP, WBmore details
  • Species reactivity

    Reacts with: Hepatitis B virus
  • Immunogen

    Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Hepatitis B Virus X antigen.


  • Form

  • Storage instructions

    Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
  • Storage buffer

    Preservative: 0.05% Sodium azide
    Constituent: PBS
  • Concentration information loading...
  • Purity

  • Primary antibody notes

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection induces a disease state which manifests itself in a variety of ways, characterized by the extent of liver damage, inflammation and viral persistence. HBV infection is also associated with a 100 fold increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and currently infects over 250 million people worldwide. HBV has a partially double stranded 3.2 kilobase DNA genome which contains four open reading frames. One of these encodes a 154 amino acid protein called the HBx protein. HBx has been shown to be a transcriptional transactivator of both viral and cellular promoters. Lacking a DNA binding domain and nuclear localization signal, HBx is believed to exert transcriptional activity through protein-protein interaction.
  • Clonality

  • Clone number

  • Isotype

  • Research areas


Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab2741 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P Use at an assay dependent concentration.
ELISA Use at an assay dependent concentration.
IP Use at an assay dependent concentration.
WB Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml.


  • Relevance

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a 17 kD transcriptional coactivator that plays a significant role in the regulation of genes involved in inflammation and cell survival. It regulates many transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and plays a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis. HBx facilitates the binding of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) to its responsive element. HBx stabilizes the cellular coactivator ASC-2 through direct protein-protein interaction, affecting the regulation of genes actively transcribed in liver cancer cells. HBx transactivates both JNK and MAPK signal transduction pathways in association with the mobilization of cytosolic Ca2+. The communication between HBx and general transcription factor TFIIB is also one of the mechanisms which account for its transcriptional transactivation. HBx decreased the expression of PTEN a known tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/AKT and HBx decreased the expression of PTEN in HBx-transfected cells. The etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is involved with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBx in particular plays a role in the development of HBV-related HCC. The persistence of HBx is important to the pathogenesis of early HCC and HBx expression in the liver during chronic HBV infection may be an important prognostic marker for the development of HCC.
  • Database links

    • Alternative names

      • HBV X antigen antibody
      • HBx antibody
      • HBxAg antibody


    • All lanes : Anti-Hepatitis B Virus X antigen antibody [X36C] (ab2741) at 1/2000 dilution

      Lane 1 : MIHA hepatocytes
      Lane 2 : MIHA hepatocytes infected with lentivirus containing EGFP alone
      Lane 3 : MIHA hepatocytes infected with lentivirus containing full length Hepatitis B Virus X antigen
      Lanes 4-5 : MIHA hepatocytes infected with lentivirus containing truncated Hepatitis B Virus X antigen


    This product has been referenced in:

    • You DG  et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces size-selective membrane permeabilization through interaction with cardiolipin. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 1861:729-737 (2019). Read more (PubMed: 30658058) »
    • Zha Y  et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM3 by targeting HMGA2. Oncol Lett 16:5709-5714 (2018). Read more (PubMed: 30356986) »
    See all 6 Publications for this product

    Customer reviews and Q&As

    1-5 of 5 Abreviews or Q&A


    Thank you for contacting us.

    Unfortunately laboratory has confirmed that they will not be able to provide the positive control. I am sorry I am not able to help further with this inquiry.

    I hope this information is helpful to you. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you need any more advice or information.

    Free Rabbit monoclonal antibody with any purchase of a primary antibody, while stocks last! Quote “RABMAB-XBSMG” in your next primary antibody order. For more information, visit the following link: https://www.abcam.com/index.html?pageconfig=resource&rid=15447

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    Sorry for the delay in getting back to you. I now have further information to share with you.

    I have checked into whether anything is know about the epitope of the anti-Hepatitis B Virus X antigen antibodies ab235, ab2741 and ab39716. I can only provide further information for ab235 additionally to the information provided on the datasheet of the antibodies. The epitope recognised by ab235 is thought to recognise an epitope of the following sequence:


    I was incorrect in my last email to say that ab235 had not been tested in Western blotting. It have been tested but we have had mixed reports from customers so we would not recommend buying this antibody with that application in mind.

    I have also looked into the anti-Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen antibodies we have and if anything is known of the conformation of the epitope is known. Unfortunately, I could not find any antibodies where this information had been established and most are able to recognise both the denatured and native form of the protein.

    I hope this information has been of help. If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to ask.

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    Thank you for contacting us and your interest in our products.

    The request for a quote for the antibodies mentioned has been passed on to one of my colleagues who will get back to you shortly with this information. In regards to your other questions:

    The Rabbit anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) secondary antibody (ab7075) should work well with ab15149, ab2741, ab235 and ab26. You would need a different secondary antibody for all the other antibodies mentioned as they are raised in rabbit. You may wantto consider the Goat polyclonal Secondary Antibody to Rabbit IgG - H&L (HRP), pre-adsorbed (ab97080). Please bear in mind that we have as yet not tested the anti-Hepatitis B Virus X antigen antibody [3F6-G10] (ab235) in Western blotting or immunoprecipitation. This does not mean that it would not work, simply that we have not tested it ourselves as yet and would therefore not he able to guarantee its performance in these applications.

    We have some good resources in setting up both immunoprecipitation and Western blotting experiments from the following link:


    Some further troubleshooting tips can also be found here:


    If you would like any help with this please do let us know.

    I will check if any further information is know about the epitopes recognised by the anti-HBx antibodies mentioned and will get back to you with this information as soon as I have it. I will also look into your final question ifwe have any conformation specific antibodies against HBV core protein (HBc).

    As you will be setting up these experiments from scratch, you may be interested in looking at our Western blotting range:


    The link above will take you not only to our Optiblot range of gels which provide superior durability and ease of use compared to many standard gels, but also the PVDF and nitrocellulose membranes and Ecl Detection kits we have available.

    If you would like any further information on these products please do let us know.

    Read More


    Thank you for your message. Unfortuantley, I am unable to obtain precise information about which subtypes of Hepatitis B virus these antibodies detect. We aim to provide as much information as possible to customers, and I am sorry this is not possible on this occasion. With regards to whether the antibodies detect native or denatured protein, you should always use reducing and denaturing conditions unless stated otherwise on the datasheet. Please also check the information I have provided below for futher details. I did manage to obtain the following information on these antibodies, which I hope you will find helpful: Reference for ab2741. This reference uses the antibody in IP and WB procedures. M. Melegari, et al. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Hepatitis B Virus x Binding Protein That Inhibits Viral Replication. J. Virology, 72(3): 1737-1743, 1998. http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/72/3/1737 Hepatitis B Virus X antigen antibody ab39716 was tested only with recombinant antigen in WB (reducing and nonreducing) and for immunoprecipitation: with antigen from HeLa cells transfected with HBX tagged with c-myc. Antibody ab235 reacts with both the native and denatured HBX antigens. For further details of this clone please see the following references: Pal J, Somogyi C, Szmolenszky A A, Szekeres G, Sipos J, Hegedus G, Martzinovits I, Molnar J, Nemeth P. Immunohistochemical assessment and prognostic value of hepatitis B virus X protein in chronic hepatitis and primary hepatocellular carcinomas using anti-HBxAg monoclonal antibody. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(3):178-84. PMID: 11692143 Marczinovits I, Somogyi C, Patthy A, Nemeth P, Molnar J. An alternative purification protocol for producing hepatitis B virus X antigen on a preparative scale in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 1997 Aug 11;56(2):81-8. PMID: 9304871 I hope this information is helpful. Should you have any further questions, please do not hesiate to contact us again.

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    The immunogen used was the whole recombinant Hepatitis B X protein and the epitope has not been determined.

    Read More

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