Product nameAnti-Histone H2A.X antibody - Nuclear Marker
See all Histone H2A.X primary antibodies
DescriptionRabbit polyclonal to Histone H2A.X - Nuclear Marker
Tested applicationsSuitable for: WB, ELISA, IHC-Pmore details
Species reactivityReacts with: Cow, Human
- Calf Thymus Histone Preparation
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
Storage bufferpH: 7.40
Preservative: 0.02% Sodium azide
Batches of this product that have a concentration < 1mg/ml may have BSA added as a stabilising agent. If you would like information about the formulation of a specific lot, please contact our scientific support team who will be happy to help.
Concentration information loading...
PurityImmunogen affinity purified
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab10475 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|WB||1/500 - 1/1000. Detects a band of approximately 15 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 15 kDa).|
|IHC-P||Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.|
FunctionVariant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C-terminal phosphorylation.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone H2A family.
Developmental stageSynthesized in G1 as well as in S-phase.
DomainThe [ST]-Q motif constitutes a recognition sequence for kinases from the PI3/PI4-kinase family.
modificationsPhosphorylated on Ser-140 (to form gamma-H2AFX or H2AX139ph) in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks, and may also occur during meiotic recombination events and immunoglobulin class switching in lymphocytes. Phosphorylation can extend up to several thousand nucleosomes from the actual site of the DSB and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Widespread phosphorylation may also serve to amplify the damage signal or aid repair of persistent lesions. Phosphorylation of Ser-140 (H2AX139ph) in response to ionizing radiation is mediated by both ATM and PRKDC while defects in DNA replication induce Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) subsequent to activation of ATR and PRKDC. Dephosphorylation of Ser-140 by PP2A is required for DNA DSB repair. In meiosis, Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may occur at synaptonemal complexes during leptotene as an ATM-dependent response to the formation of programmed DSBs by SPO11. Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may subsequently occurs at unsynapsed regions of both autosomes and the XY bivalent during zygotene, downstream of ATR and BRCA1 activation. Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may also be required for transcriptional repression of unsynapsed chromatin and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), whereby the X and Y chromosomes condense in pachytene to form the heterochromatic XY-body. During immunoglobulin class switch recombination in lymphocytes, Ser-140 phosphorylation (H2AX139ph) may occur at sites of DNA-recombination subsequent to activation of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase AICDA. Phosphorylation at Tyr-143 (H2AXY142ph) by BAZ1B/WSTF determines the relative recruitment of either DNA repair or pro-apoptotic factors. Phosphorylation at Tyr-143 (H2AXY142ph) favors the recruitment of APBB1/FE65 and pro-apoptosis factors such as MAPK8/JNK1, triggering apoptosis. In contrast, dephosphorylation of Tyr-143 by EYA proteins (EYA1, EYA2, EYA3 or EYA4) favors the recruitment of MDC1-containing DNA repair complexes to the tail of phosphorylated Ser-140 (H2AX139ph).
Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AXK119ub) by RING1 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through 'Lys-63' linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Monoubiquitination and ionizing radiation-induced 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination are distinct events.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Chromosome.
- Information by UniProt
- AW228881 antibody
- H2A histone family member X antibody
- H2A.FX antibody
All lanes : Anti-Histone H2A.X antibody - Nuclear Marker (ab10475) at 1/500 dilution
Lane 1 : Wild-type HAP1 whole cell lysate
Lane 2 : H2AFX (Histone H2A.X) knockout HAP1 whole cell lysate
Lane 3 : HEK293 whole cell lysate
Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane.
Predicted band size: 15 kDa
Lanes 1 - 4: Merged signal (red and green). Green - ab10475 observed at 17 kDa. Red - loading control, ab9484, observed at 37 kDa.
ab10475 was shown to specifically react with Histone H2A.X in wild-type HAP1 cells as signal was lost in H2AFX (Histone H2A.X) knockout cells. Wild-type and H2AFX (Histone H2A.X) knockout samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE. Ab10475 and ab9484 (Mouse anti-GAPDH loading control) were incubated overnight at 4°C at 1/500 dilution and 1/20000 dilution respectively. Blots were developed with Goat anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (IRDye® 800CW) preabsorbed ab216773 and Goat anti-Mouse IgG H&L (IRDye® 680RD) preabsorbed ab216776 secondary antibodies at 1/20000 dilution for 1 hour at room temperature before imaging.
Lanes 1 & 3 : Anti-Histone H2A.X antibody - Nuclear Marker (ab10475) at 1/500 dilution
Lane 2 : Anti-Histone H2A.X antibody - Nuclear Marker (ab10475) at 1/1000 dilution
Lanes 1-2 : Calf thymus histone lysate
Lane 3 : Calf thymus histone lysate with Human Histone H2A.X (unmodified ) peptide (ab15020) at 1 µg
All lanes : Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab6721) at 1/5000 dilution
Performed under reducing conditions.
Predicted band size: 15 kDa
Exposure time: 30 seconds
IHC image of Histone H2A X staining in human B cell lymphoma FFPE section, performed on a BondTM system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. The section was then incubated with ab10475, 1µg/ml, for 8 mins at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.
HeLa cells were incubated at 37°C for 3h with vehicle control (0 µM) and different concentrations of camptothecin (ab120115). Increased expression of γH2A.X (phospho S139) in HeLa cells correlates with an increase in camptothecin concentration, as described in literature.
Whole cell lysates were prepared with RIPA buffer (containing protease inhibitors and sodium orthovanadate), 20µg of each were loaded on the gel and the WB was run under reducing conditions. After transfer the membrane was blocked for an hour using 5% BSA before being incubated with ab2893 at 1 µg/ml and ab10475 at 1 µg/ml overnight at 4°C. Antibody binding was detected using an anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to HRP (ab97051) at 1/10000 dilution and visualised using ECL development solution.
ab10475 has been referenced in 7 publications.
- Sen N et al. EWS-FLI1 reprograms the metabolism of Ewing sarcoma cells via positive regulation of glutamine import and serine-glycine biosynthesis. Mol Carcinog 57:1342-1357 (2018). PubMed: 29873416
- Xiao G et al. B-Cell-Specific Diversion of Glucose Carbon Utilization Reveals a Unique Vulnerability in B Cell Malignancies. Cell 173:470-484.e18 (2018). PubMed: 29551267
- Ji J et al. Phosphorylated fraction of H2AX as a measurement for DNA damage in cancer cells and potential applications of a novel assay. PLoS One 12:e0171582 (2017). ELISA, ICC/IF ; Human . PubMed: 28158293
- York D et al. Enrofloxacin enhances the effects of chemotherapy in canine osteosarcoma cells with mutant and wild-type p53. Vet Comp Oncol 15:1087-1100 (2017). PubMed: 27333821
- Zeng Q et al. Overexpression of miR-155 promotes the proliferation and invasion of oral squamous carcinoma cells by regulating BCL6/cyclin D2. Int J Mol Med 37:1274-80 (2016). WB . PubMed: 26986233
- Kim MK et al. Loss of compensatory pro-survival and anti-apoptotic modulator, IKKe, sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to CHEK1 loss through an increased level of p21. Oncotarget 5:12788-802 (2014). WB . PubMed: 25474241
- Goldowitz D et al. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Front Genet 5:203 (2014). WB ; Mouse . PubMed: 25076964