Product nameAnti-Histone H3 (citrulline R2) antibody
See all Histone H3 primary antibodies
DescriptionRabbit polyclonal to Histone H3 (citrulline R2)
Tested applicationsSuitable for: ICC/IF, WBmore details
Species reactivityReacts with: Human
Synthetic peptide within Human Histone H3 aa 1-100 (N terminal) (citrulline R2) conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin. The exact sequence is proprietary. Also SwissProt: P84243, Q71DI3, Q16695, Q6NXT2.
Database link: P68431
- This antibody gave a positive signal in HL60 Treated with DMSO and Ca Ionophore whole cell lysate. ICC/IF - HeLa cells
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
Storage bufferpH: 7.40
Preservative: 0.02% Sodium azide
Batches of this product that have a concentration < 1mg/ml may have BSA added as a stabilising agent. If you would like information about the formulation of a specific lot, please contact our scientific support team who will be happy to help.
Concentration information loading...
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab174992 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
|ICC/IF||Use a concentration of 7 µg/ml.
For better results, cells should be fixed with methanol
|WB||Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 18 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 15 kDa).|
FunctionCore component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone H3 family.
Developmental stageExpressed during S phase, then expression strongly decreases as cell division slows down during the process of differentiation.
modificationsAcetylation is generally linked to gene activation. Acetylation on Lys-10 (H3K9ac) impairs methylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s). Acetylation on Lys-19 (H3K18ac) and Lys-24 (H3K24ac) favors methylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me).
Citrullination at Arg-9 (H3R8ci) and/or Arg-18 (H3R17ci) by PADI4 impairs methylation and represses transcription.
Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-18 (H3R17me2a) by CARM1 is linked to gene activation. Symmetric dimethylation at Arg-9 (H3R8me2s) by PRMT5 is linked to gene repression. Asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-3 (H3R2me2a) by PRMT6 is linked to gene repression and is mutually exclusive with H3 Lys-5 methylation (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3). H3R2me2a is present at the 3' of genes regardless of their transcription state and is enriched on inactive promoters, while it is absent on active promoters.
Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me), Lys-37 (H3K36me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) are linked to gene activation. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) facilitates subsequent acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-80 (H3K79me) is associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) responses and is a specific target for TP53BP1. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are linked to gene repression. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) is a specific target for HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) and prevents subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) and acetylation of H3 and H4. Methylation at Lys-5 (H3K4me) and Lys-80 (H3K79me) require preliminary monoubiquitination of H2B at 'Lys-120'. Methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) and Lys-28 (H3K27me) are enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin.
Phosphorylated at Thr-4 (H3T3ph) by GSG2/haspin during prophase and dephosphorylated during anaphase. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB is crucial for chromosome condensation and cell-cycle progression during mitosis and meiosis. In addition phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by RPS6KA4 and RPS6KA5 is important during interphase because it enables the transcription of genes following external stimulation, like mitogens, stress, growth factors or UV irradiation and result in the activation of genes, such as c-fos and c-jun. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph), which is linked to gene activation, prevents methylation at Lys-10 (H3K9me) but facilitates acetylation of H3 and H4. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) by AURKB mediates the dissociation of HP1 proteins (CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5) from heterochromatin. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 (H3S10ph) is also an essential regulatory mechanism for neoplastic cell transformation. Phosphorylated at Ser-29 (H3S28ph) by MLTK isoform 1, RPS6KA5 or AURKB during mitosis or upon ultraviolet B irradiation. Phosphorylation at Thr-7 (H3T6ph) by PRKCBB is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of Lys-5 (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. At centromeres, specifically phosphorylated at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) from prophase to early anaphase, by DAPK3 and PKN1. Phosphorylation at Thr-12 (H3T11ph) by PKN1 is a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that promotes demethylation of Lys-10 (H3K9me) by KDM4C/JMJD2C. Phosphorylation at Tyr-42 (H3Y41ph) by JAK2 promotes exclusion of CBX5 (HP1 alpha) from chromatin.
Monoubiquitinated by RAG1 in lymphoid cells, monoubiquitination is required for V(D)J recombination (By similarity). Ubiquitinated by the CUL4-DDB-RBX1 complex in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This may weaken the interaction between histones and DNA and facilitate DNA accessibility to repair proteins.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Chromosome.
- Information by UniProt
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ab174992 staining Histone H3 (citrulline R2) in HeLa cells. The cells were fixed with 100% methanol (5min) and then blocked in 1% BSA/10% normal goat serum/0.3M glycine in 0.1%PBS-Tween for 1h. The cells were then incubated with ab174992 at 5µg/ml and ab7291 (anti beta Tubulin) at 1µg/ml overnight at +4°C, followed by a further incubation at room temperature for 1h with a goat anti-rabbit AlexaFluor®488 secondary antibody (ab150081) at 2 μg/ml (shown in green) and a goat anti-mouse AlexaFluor®594 (ab150120) at 2 μg/ml (shown in pseudo color red). Nuclear DNA was labelled in blue with DAPI.
Negative controls: 1– Rabbit primary antibody and anti-mouse secondary antibody; 2 – Mouse primary antibody and anti-rabbit secondary antibody. Controls 1 and 2 indicate that there is no unspecific reaction between primary and secondary antibodies used.
All lanes : Anti-Histone H3 (citrulline R2) antibody (ab174992) at 1 µg/ml
Lane 1 : HL60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cell line) Whole Cell Lysate
Lane 2 : HL60 (Human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia) DMSO and Calcium Lonophore treated Whole Cell Lysate
Lysates/proteins at 10 µg per lane.
All lanes : Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab97051) at 1/50000 dilution
Developed using the ECL technique.
Performed under reducing conditions.
Predicted band size: 15 kDa
Observed band size: 18 kDa why is the actual band size different from the predicted?
Additional bands at: 77 kDa (possible non-specific binding)
Exposure time: 2 minutes
This blot was produced using a 4-12% Bis-tris gel under the MES buffer system. The gel was run at 200V for 35 minutes before being transferred onto a Nitrocellulose membrane at 30V for 70 minutes. The membrane was then blocked for an hour using 2% Bovine Serum Albumin before being incubated with ab174992 overnight at 4°C. Antibody binding was detected using an anti-rabbit antibody conjugated to HRP, and visualised using ECL development solution ab133406
This product has been referenced in:
- Bhattacharya M et al. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms release leukocidins to elicit extracellular trap formation and evade neutrophil-mediated killing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:7416-7421 (2018). Read more (PubMed: 29941565) »
- Clancy KW et al. Detection and identification of protein citrullination in complex biological systems. Curr Opin Chem Biol 30:1-6 (2016). Read more (PubMed: 26517730) »