Ubiquitin proteins and their diverse functions in the cellular machinery

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Ubiquitin is a highly conserved 8.5 kDa protein that is abundant in all types of cells and exists as a free molecule or attached to a range of different intracellular proteins by post-translational modification. Multiple copies of ubiquitin can, for example, be covalently linked to misfolded proteins and mark them for proteolysis by the proteasome. When a cell’s quality control system fails proteins can aggregate leading to neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and prion diseases.

More recently, ubiquitin was found to also have regulatory functions that are distinct from protein degradation. Ubiquitin consists of 7 lysine residues that can each be involved in chain linkage formation, resulting in different subsets of ubiquitin chains . Depending on their conformation, these chains can vary in function leading to a range of different downstream reactions such as signal transduction and changes in protein interactions. Ubiquitination was found to have vital roles in cellular processes including DNA damage responses , endocytosis and mitosis. As ubiquitin molecules are important players in many signal transduction pathways, enzymes that regulate these pathways serve as potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment.


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Ubiquitylation system

Figure 1 Ubiquitylation system: The ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) initiates the activation of ubiquitin by binding to its C-terminus. The reaction requires ATP. The activated ubiquitin on E1 is then transferred to the cysteine residues of a second protein, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). The E2 protein acts in conjunction with accessory (E3) proteins called ubiquitin ligases. E2-E3 complexes bind to protein substrates and catalyse the transfer of ubiquitin to a lysine on the substrate protein. This process can be repeated until a multiubiquitin chain is formed. The multiubiquitin chain is then recognized by a specific receptor in the proteasome.

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Ubiquitin proteins

Product nameSizeAbID
Ubiquitin protein (Human) 1mg ab125831
Ubiquitin protein (Human) 1mg ab125823

Single lysine

Product nameSizeAbID
Ubiquitin K6 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125788
Ubiquitin K11 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125752
Ubiquitin K27 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125801
Ubiquitin K29 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125755
Ubiquitin K33 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125823
Ubiquitin K48 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125802
Ubiquitin K63 only protein (Human) 1mg ab125770

Lysine to arginine mutants

Product nameSizeAbID
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K11R) (Human) 1mg ab125772
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K27R) (Human) 1mg ab125763
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K29R) (Human) 1mg ab125787
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K33R) (Human) 1mg ab125804
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K48R) (Human) 1mg ab125764
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K48R + K63R) (Human) 1mg ab125820
Ubiquitin protein (Mutated K63R) (Human) 1mg ab125806

Ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1)

Product nameSizeAbID
E1 Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme protein (Active) 50 µg ab125733

Ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2)

Product nameSizeAbID
Cdc34 protein 3 nmols ab127393
HIP2 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127407
HIP2 protein (Tagged) 3 nmols ab127401
MMS2 protein 3 nmols ab127398
MMS2 protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127414
NCE2 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127406
Rad6 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127412
UBE2C protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127404
UBE2D2 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127403
UBE2D3 protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127392
UBE2D3 protein (Tagged-His Tag) 3 nmols ab127410
UBE2E2 protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127402
UBE2E3 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127408
Ube2G2 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127396
Ube2G2 protein (Tagged-His Tag) 3 nmols ab127409
Ube2H protein (His Tag) 3 nmols ab127399
Ube2H protein (Tagged-His Tag)) 3 nmols ab127397
UBE2I/UBC9 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127405
Ube2L3 protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127411
UBE2M protein (His tag) 3 nmols ab127395
Ube2N/Ubc13 protein (Active) 3 nmols ab127413
Ube2N/Ubc13 protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127400
UBE2S protein (Human) 3 nmols ab127394

Ubiquitin ligases (E3)

Product nameSizeAbID
BRCA 1 protein (Human) 2 µg ab82204
MDM2 protein (Active) 100 µg ab95934
MURF1 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125750
MURF2 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125732
MURF3 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125746
Rffl protein (Active) 10 µg ab125749
RNF70 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125812
SYVN1 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125740
UBE3A protein (Active) 50 µg ab125736

Deconjugating enzyme substrates

Product nameSizeAbID
Ubiquitin protein (AMCA) (Human) 50 µg ab125751
Ubiquitin protein (Rhodamine) (Human) 50 µg ab125774

Deubiquitylases (DUBs)

Product nameSizeAbID
AMSH protein (Active) 25 µg ab125745
Ataxin 3 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125839
ATXN3L protein (Active) 25 µg ab125844
Deubiquitinase sseL protein (Active) 25 µg ab125840
JOSD1 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125847
Josephin-2 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125842
OTUB2 protein (His tag) 25 µg ab125757
PGP9.5 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125829
PLP2 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125843
UBPY/USP8 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125744
UCHL3 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125809
UCH37 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125771
USP2 protein (Active) 25 ug ab125735
USP14 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125760
USP51 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125738
YOD1 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125737

Ubiquitin like molecules (UBLs)

Product nameSizeAbID
Sumo 1 protein (AMCA) (Human) 50 µg ab125798
Sumo 2 protein (AMCA) (Human) 50 µg ab125821
Sumo 2 protein (Rhodamine) 50 µg ab125741
NEDD8 protein (Active) 50 µg ab125816

Desumoylases

Product nameSizeAbID
SENP1 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125846
SENP6 protein (His tag) 25 µg ab125841

Deneddylases

Product nameSizeAbID
SENP8 protein (Active) 25 µg ab125845

Ubiquitin chains

Product nameSizeAbID
Diubiquitin K48 protein (Human) 100 µg ab139766
Diubiquitin K63 protein (Human) 50 µg ab139769
Diubiquitin protein (His tag) 25 µg ab139768
Diubiquitin K11 protein (Human) 25 µg ab139635
Pentaubiquitin protein (His tag) 100 µg ab139771
Tetraubiquitin K11 protein (Human) 25 µg ab139761
Tetraubiquitin K48 protein (Human) 25 µg ab139762
Tetraubiquitin K63 protein (Human) 25 µg ab139764
Tetraubiquitin protein (His tag) 100 µg ab139763
Triubiquitin K11 protein (Human) 100 µg ab139772
Triubiquitin K48 protein (Human) 100 µg ab139767
Triubiquitin K63 protein (Human) 100 µg ab139773
Triubiquitin protein (His tag) 100 ug ab139774

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