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In addition to the four bases that make up DNA, additional cytosine variants have been discovered over the last decades.
The best studied variant is 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), an epigenetic mark that silences gene expression and plays key role in processes such as cell differentiation, neurodegeneration and cancer.
5-mC can be further oxidized into other forms, namely 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxycytosine (5-caC). These modifications and their role in human health and disease are currently hot topics of investigation.
DNA methylation: DNMTs
Methylation of the C-5 position of cytosine is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). In humans, the family of DNMT enzymes includes de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, and the maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1.
Our assays allow you to quantify DNMT activity in under four hours and screen potential inhibitors of DNMT activity.
Browse DNMT kits
DNA demethylation: TET enzymes
The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes catalyze the DNA demethylation reaction. TET1, TET2 and TET3 convert 5-mC to its oxidized derivatives 5-hmC, 5-fC and 5-caC.
Our assays allow you to quantify TET enzyme activity in under four hours and screen potential inhibitors of TET enzyme activity.
5-mC, 5-hmC and 5-fC
It is becoming increasingly clear that 5-hmC, 5-fC and 5-caC are not simply intermediate products of the demethylation pathway but they are epigenetic marks in their own right. They are stable modifications that have different interacting proteins, genomic distributions and effects on gene expression.
Our range of kits include assays for the global quantification of 5-mC, 5-hmC and 5-fC.
Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation: MeDIP and hMeDIP
MeDIP and hMeDIP are antibody-based techniques that allow the enrichment of methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA in your sample. The obtained sample can be used with downstream qPCR, microarrays or next-generation sequencing.
We offer kits for MeDIP and hMeDIP to help you streamline your experiments.
Bisulfite conversion and bisulfite sequencing
Bisulfite sequencing is the gold standard of DNA methylation analyses. It provides single-base resolution, quantitative measurement of methylated cytosines.
Treatment of DNA with sodium bisulfite converts cytosine to uracil, but leaves methylated cytosine unconverted. Subsequent parallel sequencing of bisulfite-treated and un-treated DNA provides the methylation status of individual cytosine residues in your sample.
We offer kits for bisulfite conversion, bisulfite conversion coupled to library preparation and post-bisulfite library preparation.