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Conjugating antibodies or biomolecules to gold can be useful for applications like electron microscopy and lateral flow testing.
Whilst traditional passive conjugation of biomolecules to gold nanoparticles requires extensive optimization to achieve, our kits are quick and easy to use, producing stable conjugates. These come with a protocol for covalently attaching antibodies or biomolecules to a range of nanoparticle sizes.
Here you can find out more about how our gold conjugation kits work, and what makes them unique.
To select the ideal gold conjugation kit, you should consider how the nanoparticle's size and the conjugation method will affect your downstream application.
Different nanoparticle sizes are suitable for different applications. Table 1 below shows nanoparticle size suitability for various applications. Kits are available with nanoparticle sizes of 10, 20, 40, and 80 nm.
Dynamic Light Scattering
Most kits involve conjugation with lysine residues or free amine groups on antibodies or proteins. This is suitable for the majority of uses, although it is not site-specific. For more specialist applications, we offer more suitable types of conjugation.
For thiol-containing biomolecules, use maleimide conjugation kits, which attach via thiol groups present at the end of Fc fragments. Other biomolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides, can readily be functionalized with thiols in a site-specific manner.
Antibodies or biomolecules attach covalently to a 'conjugation 'friendly' coating on gold nanoparticles which greatly enhances gold’s stability (the exact makeup of the coat is proprietary).
This coat completely shields the metal surface which prevents direct metal-biomolecule interactions. The biomolecule attachment is covalent, so it differs from passive adsorption, which can be sensitive to changes in pH.
Depending on your specific kit, the reaction will involve lysine resides, thiols, carboxyl groups or aldehyde groups present on the biomolecules.