Abcam’s Total Prothrombin/Thrombin ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for is for the quantitative determination of total Prothrombin and Thrombin in mouse plasma, serum and cell culture media.
Mouse Prothrombin, Thrombin and thrombin-antithrombin complex will bind to the capture antibody coated on the microtiter plate. After appropriate washing steps, biotinylated primary antibody binds to the captured protein. Excess primary antibody is washed away and bound antibody is reacted with horseradish peroxidase conjugated streptavidin. TMB substrate is used for color development at 450nm. A standard calibration curve is prepared along with the samples to be measured using dilutions of Prothrombin. The amount of color development is directly proportional to the concentration of Prothrombin in the sample.
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.
Expressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
Involvement in disease
Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain. Contains 2 kringle domains. Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
The gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues, which bind calcium ions, result from the carboxylation of glutamyl residues by a microsomal enzyme, the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The modified residues are necessary for the calcium-dependent interaction with a negatively charged phospholipid surface, which is essential for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. N-glycosylated. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-121: Hex3HexNAc3 (minor), Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major). At Asn-143: Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major).
Machida T et al. Contribution of thrombin-reactive brain pericytes to blood-brain barrier dysfunction in an in vivo mouse model of obesity-associated diabetes and an in vitro rat model. PLoS One12:e0177447 (2017).
Read more (PubMed: 28489922) »