Overview

  • Product name

    Anti-MSH2 antibody [SP46]
    See all MSH2 primary antibodies
  • Description

    Rabbit monoclonal [SP46] to MSH2
  • Host species

    Rabbit
  • Tested applications

    Suitable for: IHC-Pmore details
  • Species reactivity

    Reacts with: Human
    Predicted to work with: Mouse, Rat, Chicken, Cow, Dog, Pig
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide within Human MSH2 aa 550-650 (internal sequence). The exact sequence is proprietary.
    Database link: P43246

  • Positive control

    • IHC-P: Human colon carcinoma, colon, colon adenocarcinoma, tonsil, skin, lung, cervix, endometrium, thyroid, placenta and prostate tissues.
  • General notes

    To see more of the key markers and tools you need to study the hallmarks of cancer, including genome instability and mutation, please visit the following page.

    Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. For details on our patents, please refer to RabMab® patents.

    This product is a recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody.

Properties

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab231437 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P 1/50. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.

Primary antibody incubation for 30 minutes at room temperature.

Target

  • Function

    Component of the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair system (MMR). Forms two different heterodimers: MutS alpha (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutS beta (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer) which binds to DNA mismatches thereby initiating DNA repair. When bound, heterodimers bend the DNA helix and shields approximately 20 base pairs. MutS alpha recognizes single base mismatches and dinucleotide insertion-deletion loops (IDL) in the DNA. MutS beta recognizes larger insertion-deletion loops up to 13 nucleotides long. After mismatch binding, MutS alpha or beta forms a ternary complex with the MutL alpha heterodimer, which is thought to be responsible for directing the downstream MMR events, including strand discrimination, excision, and resynthesis. ATP binding and hydrolysis play a pivotal role in mismatch repair functions. The ATPase activity associated with MutS alpha regulates binding similar to a molecular switch: mismatched DNA provokes ADP-->ATP exchange, resulting in a discernible conformational transition that converts MutS alpha into a sliding clamp capable of hydrolysis-independent diffusion along the DNA backbone. This transition is crucial for mismatch repair. MutS alpha may also play a role in DNA homologous recombination repair. In melanocytes may modulate both UV-B-induced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.
  • Tissue specificity

    Ubiquitously expressed.
  • Involvement in disease

    Defects in MSH2 are the cause of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type 1 (HNPCC1) [MIM:120435]. Mutations in more than one gene locus can be involved alone or in combination in the production of the HNPCC phenotype (also called Lynch syndrome). Most families with clinically recognized HNPCC have mutations in either MLH1 or MSH2 genes. HNPCC is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease associated with marked increase in cancer susceptibility. It is characterized by a familial predisposition to early onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extra-colonic cancers of the gastrointestinal, urological and female reproductive tracts. HNPCC is reported to be the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world. Cancers in HNPCC originate within benign neoplastic polyps termed adenomas. Clinically, HNPCC is often divided into two subgroups. Type I: hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer, a young age of onset, and carcinoma observed in the proximal colon. Type II: patients have an increased risk for cancers in certain tissues such as the uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine, skin, and larynx in addition to the colon. Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria: 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two; 2 or more generation affected; 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes. The term "suspected HNPCC" or "incomplete HNPCC" can be used to describe families who do not or only partially fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but in whom a genetic basis for colon cancer is strongly suspected. MSH2 mutations may predispose to hematological malignancies and multiple cafe-au-lait spots.
    Defects in MSH2 are a cause of Muir-Torre syndrome (MuToS) [MIM:158320]; also abbreviated MTS. MuToS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sebaceous neoplasms and visceral malignancy.
    Defects in MSH2 are a cause of susceptibility to endometrial cancer (ENDMC) [MIM:608089].
    Defects in MSH2 are a cause of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type 8 (HNPCC8) [MIM:613244]. HNPCC is a disease associated with marked increase in cancer susceptibility. It is characterized by a familial predisposition to early-onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extra-colonic tumors of the gastrointestinal, urological and female reproductive tracts. HNPCC is reported to be the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer in the Western world. Clinically, HNPCC is often divided into two subgroups. Type I is characterized by hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer, a young age of onset, and carcinoma observed in the proximal colon. Type II is characterized by increased risk for cancers in certain tissues such as the uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine, skin, and larynx in addition to the colon. Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria: 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two; 2 or more generation affected; 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes. The term 'suspected HNPCC' or 'incomplete HNPCC' can be used to describe families who do not or only partially fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but in whom a genetic basis for colon cancer is strongly suspected. Note=HNPCC8 results from heterozygous deletion of 3-prime exons of EPCAM and intergenic regions directly upstream of MSH2, resulting in transcriptional read-through and epigenetic silencing of MSH2 in tissues expressing EPCAM.
  • Sequence similarities

    Belongs to the DNA mismatch repair mutS family.
  • Post-translational
    modifications

    Phosphorylated by PRKCZ, which may prevent MutS alpha degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
    Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
  • Cellular localization

    Nucleus.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links

  • Alternative names

    • BAT26 antibody
    • COCA 1 antibody
    • COCA1 antibody
    • DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2 antibody
    • FCC 1 antibody
    • FCC1 antibody
    • hMSH2 antibody
    • HNPCC 1 antibody
    • HNPCC antibody
    • HNPCC1 antibody
    • LCFS2 antibody
    • MSH 2 antibody
    • Msh2 antibody
    • MSH2_HUMAN antibody
    • MutS homolog 2 antibody
    • MutS homolog 2 colon cancer nonpolyposis type 1 antibody
    • MutS protein homolog 2 antibody
    see all

Images

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human prostate tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human placenta tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human thyroid tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human endometrium tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human cervix tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human lung tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human skin tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human colon adenocarcinoma tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human colon tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tonsil tissue stained for MSH2 using ab231437 at 1/100 dilution in immunohistochemical analysis.

References

ab231437 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.

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