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A summary of the best dopaminergic neuron markers for your research
Dopaminergic neurons produce dopamine, a monoamine neurotransmitter with roles in neurological functions such as mood and reward.
The progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons is the cause of many of the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease. A widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease is Levodopa, which is a pure form of the precursor to dopamine, L-DOPA.
There are several well-characterized dopamine markers that can aid your research.
An enzyme that converts L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphelylalanine (L-DOPA), which is a dopamine precursor.
Image: Rat brain sections stained with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (ab75875).
|3-Iodo-L-tyrosine (MIT) (ab144773)||Tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor. Inhibits dopamine synthesis. Stimulates prolactin secretion.|
A transmembrane transporter that controls the re-uptake of extracellular dopamine into presynaptic neurons and pumps dopamine out of the synapse into the cytosol.
DAT is vital in maintaining sufficient dopamine levels in the neuron for release.
Image: Mouse substantia nigra sections stained with anti-dopamine transporter (ab128848).
|Clomipramine hydrochloride (ab143213)||Selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. DAT blocker.|
|Benztropine mesylate (ab143332)||Potent DAT inhibitor. Selective M1 receptor antagonist.|
|Bupropion hydrochloride (ab120534)||Non-selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter (DAT/NET) inhibitor.|
|GBR 12909 dihydrochloride (ab120607)||Potent, selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor.|
Image: Mouse substantia nigra tissue sections stained with anti-GIRK2 (ab65096).
During synaptic transmission, the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) accumulates neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles. There are two isoforms of this vesicular membrane protein; VMAT2 and VMAT 1.
VMAT2 translocates monoamines such as the neurotransmitter dopamine from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles.
Fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) are probes that act as novel optical tracers allowing imaging of neurotransmitter release from individual presynaptic terminals in the brain. They are designed to loosely mimic the overall topology and physical properties of monoamine neurotransmitters and have been engineered to have fluorescence properties.
FFNs have the capability for increasing the understanding of both fundamental and applied neurobiological research including research into neurodegeneration and drug addiction.
Advantages of using fluorescent false neurotransmitters: