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Neurons and glia express unique sets of transcription factors, enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and receptors. Ensure you are choosing the best neural subtype markers with our easy-to-use guides.
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Synaptic transmission is the process by which signaling neurotransmitters are released by the pre-synaptic neuron and subsequently bind and activate receptors of the postsynaptic neuron.
During synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters accumulate in synaptic vesicles and are released by exocytosis from the pre-synaptic neuron. The neurotransmitters subsequently diffuse across the synaptic cleft, bind and activate receptors of the postsynaptic neuron.
Binding then provokes an electrical change in the post-synaptic neuron. Following release from the pre-synaptic neuron, neurotransmitters are rapidly removed, either by enzymatic destruction or by re-uptake into the pre-synaptic neuron.
There are a large number of neurotransmitter types. Common neurotransmitter types are:
|Amino acids:||Monamines:||Neuropeptides:||Others types:|
There are a variety of key receptors and transporters which play an important role in synaptic transmission and are essential in transporting the various neurotransmitters across biological membranes to various cellular and subcellular locations.
|Neuroepithelial cells||Nestin, SOX2, Notch1, HES1, HES3, E-cadherin, occludin.|
|Radial glia||Vimentin, nestin, PAX6, HES1, HES5, GFAP, GLAST, BLBP, TN-C, N-cadherin, SOX2.|
|Intermediate progenitors||TBR2, MASH1/Ascl1.|
|Immature neurons||Doublecortin, beta III tubulin, NeuroD1, TBR1, stathmin 1.|
|Oligodendrocyte precursor cells||PDGF receptor alpha, NG2.|
|Mature oligodendrocytes||Olig 1, olig 2, olig 3, MBP, OSP, MOG, SOX10.|
|Schwann cells||MPZ, NCAM, GAP43, S100, P75NTR.|
|Astrocytes||GFAP, EAAT1/GLAST, EAAT2/GLT-1, glutamine synthetase, S100 beta, ALDH1L1.|
|Microglia||TMEM119, CD11b, CD45, Iba1, CX3CR1, F4/80, CD68, CD40.|
|Mature neurons||NeuN, MAP2, 160 kDa neurofilament medium, 200kDa neurofilament heavy, synaptophysin, PSD95.|
|Glutamatergic neurons||VGLUT1, VGLUT2, NMDAR1, NMDAR2B, glutaminase, glutamine synthetase.|
|GABAergic neurons||GABA transporter 1, GABAB receptors 1 and 2, GAD65, GAD67.|
|Dopaminergic neurons||Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, FOXA2, GIRK2, Nurr1, LMX1B|
|Serotonergic neurons||Tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, Pet1.|
|Cholinergic neurons||Choline acetyltransferase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, acetylcholinesterase|