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A summary of commonly used markers for radial glia
During neurogenesis, neuroepithelial (NE) cells transform into radial glia. Epithelial features such as tight junctions are downregulated in favor of adherens junctions. Glial hallmarks begin to emerge, including astrocyte markers and morphological features such as glycogen granules.
An intermediate filament protein whose expression is upregulated during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of NE cells to radial glia and persists until astrocyte development
Rhesus monkey brain tissue sections stained with anti-vimentin ( ab92547).
Vimentin inhibitor and antiangiogenic agent: Withaferin A (ab120644)
A transcription factor that promotes neurogenesis.
Mouse embryonic (E12.5) brain sections stained with anti-PAX6 ( ab5790).
HES1 and HES5 Transcription factors that regulate the maintenance of radial glia. Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-HES5 (red) ( ab25374).
Astrocytic markers: GFAP, GLAST, and BLBP These astrocytic markers emerge as neuroepithelial cells become radial glia. Rat embryonic (E16) spinal cord sections stained with anti-BLBP ( ab32423).
Downregulator of GFAP expression:
Adhesion and extracellular matrix molecules: TN-C and N-cadherin Upregulation of adhesion and extracellular matrix proteins accompanies the transformation of NE cells into radial glia. Mouse embryonic coronal cortical section stained with anti-N -cadherin (red) ( ab76011).
Nestin An intermediate filament protein in NE cells and radial glia, whose expression persists until astrocyte development. Rat adult brain tissue sections stained with anti-nestin ( ab6142).
SOX2 A transcription factor and the earliest marker of the neural plate. It is expressed in proliferating cells and those that acquire glial fates, but downregulated in post-mitotic neurons.
Chicken embryonic (E7) brain tissue sections stained with anti-SOX2 ( ab97959).
References Bargagna-Mohan, P. et al. The tumor inhibitor and antiangiogenic agent withaferin A targets the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Chem. Biol. 14, 623–34 (2007). Bylund, M., Andersson, E., Novitch, B. G. & Muhr, J. Vertebrate neurogenesis is counteracted by Sox1-3 activity. Nat Neurosci 6, 1162–1168 (2003). Heins, N. et al. Glial cells generate neurons: the role of the transcription factor Pax6. Nat. Neurosci. 5, 308–315 (2002). Kageyama, R., Ohtsuka, T. & Kobayashi, T. Roles of Hes genes in neural development. Development Growth and Differentiation 50, (2008). Kriegstein, A. & Alvarez-Buylla, A. The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 149–84 (2009). Kriegstein, A. R. & Götz, M. Radial glia diversity: A matter of cell fate. Glia 43, 37–43 (2003). Kriegstein, A. & Alvarez-Buylla, A. The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32, 149–84 (2009). Lamouille, S., Xu, J. & Derynck, R. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15, 178–96 (2014). Liu, W.-L. et al. Methylprednisolone inhibits the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in reactivated astrocytes. Glia 56, 1390–400 (2008). Papanayotou, C. et al. A mechanism regulating the onset of Sox2 expression in the embryonic neural plate. Plos Biol 6, e2 (2008).