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Chemokines are classified in four groups based on the pattern of their cysteine residues, namely CXC (α chemokines), CC (β chemokines), CX3C and C. Their receptors are class A GPCRs, however not all receptors are selective for a single ligand. A chemokine may therefore bind a number of receptors and exhibit agonist behavior with some and antagonist behavior with others. Some commonly activated downstream pathways include JAK/Stat, Ras, Erk and Akt.