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See how insulin controls the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and proteins in our pathway poster.
Insulin pathway – an overview
Insulin is a peptide hormone synthesized by pancreatic beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans. Secreted in response to elevated levels of nutrients in the blood, it controls the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids as well as proteins.
Insulin controls the uptake of glucose by cells by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 to the cell membrane. Once glucose is internalized, it promotes its storage in the form of glucogen. In both cases, this is achieved through the action of PI3K/Akt, activated by the insulin receptor substrate protein IRS-1.
Insulin also promotes protein synthesis by inhibiting the action of GSK3, which normally phosphorylates and inactivates eukaryotic initiation factors eIF2B and eIF4B.
What to expect
Our insulin signaling pathway poster covers glucose interaction with GLUT-4 and the downstream signaling pathways which lead to transcription factor binding to DNA. It also shows you insulin binding to insulin receptors and the downstream effects of this.