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PKC includes a family of structurally homologous serine/threonine kinase enzymes that are involved in multiple pathways and biological processes such as, cell division, memory, differentiation, proliferation. and apoptosis.
The PKC family consists of ten isozymes that are classified according to the differences between their regulatory regions and divided in 3 groups: conventional, novel or atypical.
Isozyme-specific tools are important as they allow you to accurately investigate distinct PKC pathways. Here you can find our recommended range of isozyme-specific antibodies – including those against various phosphorylated forms – and inhibitors for all three groups of PKC isozymes.
Conventional PKC enzymes contain four homologous domains (C1, C2, C3, C4) and require binding of diacylglycerol (DAG), phospholipid, calcium or phorbol esters for activation. Isozyme-specific tools in this group include antibodies and inhibitors against PKC alpha and beta.
Figure 1. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse small intestine stained with anti-PKC alpha [Y124] (ab32376).
Figure 2. Immunocytochemical analysis of K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells from bone marrow) cells labeled with anti-PKC beta 1 with (ab195039) at 1/100 followed by goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab150077) at 1/1,000 (green)
Novel PKC enzymes also require DAG binding for activation but not calcium, as they have a novel C2 domain that does not act as a calcium sensor. Isozyme-specific tools in this group include antibodies and inhibitors against PKC delta and epsilon.
Figure 3. Immunocytochemical analysis of HeLa cells labeled with anti-PKC delta (ab182126) at 1/100 followed by goat anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor® 488 (IgG) (ab150077) at 1/400 (green).
Figure 4. Immunohistochemical analysis of human endometrium tissue labeled with anti-PKC epsilon (ab124806) at 1/50.
Members of the atypical subfamily do not require the binding of second messengers for activation as they contain a nonfunctional C1 domain and are without a C2 domain. Isozyme-specific tools in this group include antibodies and inhibitors against PKC zeta only.
Figure 5. Immunocytochemical analysis of human HeLa cells labeled with anti-PKC zeta (ab108970) at 1/150 followed by goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) at 1/2,000.
In some case, you may not need to look at specific isozymes of PKC and instead want to investigate all isoforms of PKC. In these instances, there are antibodies, kits, and inhibitors that target pan PKC.
Figure 6. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse testis tissue labeled with anti-PKC antibody [EPR17368] (ab181558) at 1/1,000, followed by Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab97051) at 1/500.