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Antibodies against specific organelles, the cell membrane, or cytoskeletal components, allow you to explore protein localization in situ, or you can use them in western blot analyses to confirm proper fractionation of cell lysates.
Sodium-potassium ATPase: is responsible for the extracellular transport of sodium ions and the intracellular transport of potassium ions.
PMCA: plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) regulates intracellular calcium concentrations by removing Ca2+ from the cell.
Cadherin: a transmembrane protein that mediates calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The Ca2+ binding domains of cadherins are highly conserved, enabling the creation of antibodies that are effective across all members of the cadherin superfamily.
CD98: transmembrane glycoprotein found in vertebrates. It forms part of the heterodimeric neutral amino acid transport systems.
Caveolae: complex plasma membrane structures whose properties appear to place them between coated pits and lipid rafts.
Microtubules: highly dynamic polymers composed of 13 protofilaments of α-tubulin and β-tubulin heterodimers that continuously grow and shrink during interphase and mitosis.
Vimentin: class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally.
Desmin: class-III intermediate filaments found in muscle cells. In adult striated muscle they form a fibrous network connecting myofibrils to each other and the plasma membrane from the periphery of the Z-line structures.
Cytokeratin: intermediate filaments present in all epithelial cells, and also in several non-epithelial cells. These may regulate the activity of kinases such as PKC and SRC via binding to integrin beta-1 (ITB1) and the receptor of activated protein kinase C (RACK1/GNB2L1).
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): found in eukaryotic cells and is made of membrane sacs called cisternae. Rough ER (where ribosomes are bound) is a site of protein synthesis. Smooth ER is a site for lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The ER forms part of a network of membranes with the Golgi and lysosomes.
Golgi apparatus: serves as a molecular assembly line in which membrane proteins undergo extensive post-translational modification. The Golgi is part of a network of membranes with the ER and lysosomes.
Mitochondria: cytoplasmic organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells, comprising an outer membrane, a folded inner membrane, and a matrix. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouses, generating ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and play a role in apoptosis.
Ribosome: an assembly of proteins and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) that translate messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins.
Lysosome: membrane-bound organelle that breaks down macromolecules into constituent parts to then be recycled. Lysosomes form part of a network of membranes with the ER and Golgi.
Endosome: formed at the plasma membrane or the Golgi, endosomes are membrane-delimited intracellular transporters that fuse with lysosomes, are involved in returning material to the plasma membrane.
Peroxisome: cytoplasmic organelles responsible for catalyzing fatty acid via beta-oxidation, and play a vital role in generating and degrading reactive oxygen species.
Autophagosome: vesicles with a double membrane that contain cellular material destined for degradation via autophagy. Formation of autophagosome depends on type III PI3K lipid kinase activity.
Nucleus: membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Nuclear pore: complexes that allow the selective exchange of cellular components, like RNA, proteins, and lipids between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Nuclear envelope: comprising an inner and outer membrane with specialized nuclear pores, and separated by the perinuclear space, it separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Nuclear speckles: irregular shaped structures of varied size and are rich in splicing factors including small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs).
Nucleolus: found within the nucleus where it works as the site for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene transcription and the early steps of ribosome assembly.
Heterochromatin: is densely packed chromatin within the nucleus inaccessible to DNA/RNA polymerases and is thus transcriptionally silent.
Centromere: the region of linear chromosomes that join a pair of chromatids. Centromeres are where the mitotic spindle attaches.