Key features and details
- Expression system: Escherichia coli
- Purity: > 95% SDS-PAGE
- Active: Yes
- Tags: His tag N-Terminus
- Suitable for: SDS-PAGE
Product nameRecombinant human RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS protein
See all RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS proteins and peptides
1 unit equals 1 nanogram of purified protein. 20 units are sufficient for reconstituted transcription assay and 100 units are sufficient for a protein-protein interaction assay. Has been applied in in vitro transcription assays, splicing assays and protein-protein interactions assays.
Purity> 95 % SDS-PAGE.
Expression systemEscherichia coli
Protein lengthProtein fragment
Predicted molecular weight42 kDa
Amino acids1586 to 1951
TagsHis tag N-Terminus
Additional sequence informationRecombinant protein isolated from E. coli strain that carries the coding seq of human RNA pol II carboxy-terminal domain under control of a T7 promoter. Heptapeptide seq Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser.
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab81888 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped on dry ice. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -80ºC. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Constituents: 0.75% Potassium chloride, 0.0154% DTT, 0.316% Tris HCl, 0.00584% EDTA, 20% Glycerol (glycerin, glycerine)
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
- DNA directed RNA polymerase II A
- DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit RNA polymerase II 220 kd subunit
- DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A
FunctionDNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing. Acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the RNA polymerase beta' chain family.
DomainThe C-terminal domain (CTD) serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing.
modificationsThe tandem heptapeptide repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) can be highly phosphorylated. The phosphorylation activates Pol II. Phosphorylation occurs mainly at residues 'Ser-2' and 'Ser-5' of the heptapeptide repeat and is mediated, at least, by CDK7 and CDK9. CDK7 phosphorylation of POLR2A associated with DNA promotes transcription initiation by triggering dissociation from DNA. Phosphorylation also takes place at 'Ser-7' of the heptapeptide repeat, which is required for efficient transcription of snRNA genes and processing of the transcripts. The phosphorylation state is believed to result from the balanced action of site-specific CTD kinases and phosphatases, and a 'CTD code' that specifies the position of Pol II within the transcription cycle has been proposed. Dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase CTDSP1.
Among tandem heptapeptide repeats of the C-terminal domain (CTD) some do not match the Y-S-P-T-S-P-S consensus, the seventh serine residue 'Ser-7' being replaced by a lysine. 'Lys-7' in these non-consensus heptapeptide repeats can be alternatively acetylated, methylated and dimethylated. EP300 is one of the enzyme able to acetylate 'Lys-7'. Acetylation at 'Lys-7' of non-consensus heptapeptide repeats is associated with 'Ser-2' phosphorylation and active transcription. It may regulate initiation or early elongation steps of transcription specially for inducible genes.
Methylated at Arg-1810 prior to transcription initiation when the CTD is hypophosphorylated, phosphorylation at Ser-1805 and Ser-1808 preventing this methylation. Symmetrically or asymmetrically dimethylated at Arg-1810 by PRMT5 and CARM1 respectively. Symmetric or asymmetric dimethylation modulates interactions with CTD-binding proteins like SMN1/SMN2 and TDRD3. SMN1/SMN2 interacts preferentially with the symmetrically dimethylated form while TDRD3 interacts with the asymmetric form. Through the recruitment of SMN1/SMN2, symmetric dimethylation is required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II, that form R-loop in transcription terminal regions, an important step in proper transcription termination. CTD dimethylation may also facilitate the expression of select RNAs. Among tandem heptapeptide repeats of the C-terminal domain (CTD) some do not match the Y-S-P-T-S-P-S consensus, the seventh serine residue 'Ser-7' being replaced by a lysine. 'Lys-7' in these non-consensus heptapeptide repeats can be alternatively acetylated, methylated and dimethylated. Methylation occurs in the earliest transcription stages and precedes or is concomitant to 'Ser-5' and 'Ser-7' phosphorylation.
Ubiquitinated by WWP2 leading to proteasomal degradation (By similarity). Following UV treatment, the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol IIo) is ubiquitinated UV damage sites without leading to degradation: ubiquitination is facilitated by KIAA1530/UVSSA and promotes RNA pol IIo backtracking to allow access to the nucleotide excision repair machinery.
- Information by UniProt
To our knowledge, customised protocols are not required for this product. Please try the standard protocols listed below and let us know how you get on.
ab81888 has been referenced in 3 publications.
- Vervoort SJ et al. The PP2A-Integrator-CDK9 axis fine-tunes transcription and can be targeted therapeutically in cancer. Cell 184:3143-3162.e32 (2021). PubMed: 34004147
- Etchegaray JP et al. The Histone Deacetylase SIRT6 Restrains Transcription Elongation via Promoter-Proximal Pausing. Mol Cell 75:683-699.e7 (2019). PubMed: 31399344
- Olson CM et al. Development of a Selective CDK7 Covalent Inhibitor Reveals Predominant Cell-Cycle Phenotype. Cell Chem Biol 26:792-803.e10 (2019). PubMed: 30905681