Overview

  • Product name
    Anti-ProDynorphin antibody
    See all ProDynorphin primary antibodies
  • Description
    Rabbit polyclonal to ProDynorphin
  • Host species
    Rabbit
  • Specificity
    This antibody blocks specifically with leumorphin (rat only). Cells are found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus and fibres in the lateral hypothalamus in rat brain of colchicine treated 4% FA perfused tissue.
  • Tested applications
    Suitable for: IHC-Frmore details
  • Species reactivity
    Reacts with: Mouse, Rat
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide:

    RSQENPNTYSEDLDV

    (Rat)

  • General notes
    This product should be stored undiluted. Should this product contain a precipitate we recommend microcentrifugation before use.

Properties

  • Form
    Liquid
  • Storage instructions
    Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
  • Storage buffer
    Preservative: 0.09% Sodium azide
    Constituents: PBS, 1% BSA
  • Purity
    Whole antiserum
  • Clonality
    Polyclonal
  • Isotype
    IgG
  • Research areas

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab11137 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-Fr 1/200 - 1/2000.

Target

  • Function
    Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress.
    Dynorphin peptides differentially regulate the kappa opioid receptor. Dynorphin A(1-13) has a typical opiod activity, it is 700 times more potent than Leu-enkephalin.
    Leumorphin has a typical opiod activity and may have anti-apoptotic effect.
  • Involvement in disease
    Defects in PDYN are the cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 23 (SCA23) [MIM:610245]. Spinocerebellar ataxia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of cerebellar disorders. Patients show progressive incoordination of gait and often poor coordination of hands, speech and eye movements, due to degeneration of the cerebellum with variable involvement of the brainstem and spinal cord. SCA23 is an adult-onset autosomal dominant form characterized by slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia, with variable additional features, including peripheral neuropathy and dysarthria.
  • Sequence similarities
    Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.
  • Cellular localization
    Secreted.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links
  • Alternative names
    • ADCA antibody
    • Alpha neoendorphin antibody
    • Beta neoendorphin antibody
    • Beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin antibody
    • Big Dyn antibody
    • Big dynorphin antibody
    • Dyn antibody
    • Dyn-A17 antibody
    • Dyn-B antibody
    • Dynorphin A antibody
    • Dynorphin A(1-13) antibody
    • Dynorphin A(1-17) antibody
    • Dynorphin A(1-8) antibody
    • Dynorphin B antibody
    • Dynorphin B(1-13) antibody
    • Dynorphin B-29 antibody
    • Enkephalin B antibody
    • Leu enkephalin antibody
    • Leumorphin antibody
    • Neoendorphin dynorphin enkephalin prepropeptide antibody
    • PDYN antibody
    • PDYN_HUMAN antibody
    • PENKB antibody
    • Preprodynorphin antibody
    • Preproenkephalin B antibody
    • Prodynorphin antibody
    • Proenkephalin B antibody
    • Rimorphin antibody
    • SCA23 antibody
    see all

References

This product has been referenced in:
  • Whitfield TW  et al. ? Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake. J Neurosci 35:4296-305 (2015). Read more (PubMed: 25762676) »
  • Romero-Picó A  et al. Hypothalamic ?-opioid receptor modulates the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. Neuropsychopharmacology 38:1296-307 (2013). Read more (PubMed: 23348063) »
See all 3 Publications for this product

Customer reviews and Q&As

1-5 of 5 Abreviews or Q&A

Application
Immunohistochemistry (PFA perfusion fixed frozen sections)
Sample
Mouse Tissue sections (Brain)
Antigen retrieval step
None
Permeabilization
Yes - 0.3% Triton X-100
Specification
Brain
Blocking step
Serum as blocking agent for 1 hour(s) and 0 minute(s) · Concentration: 5% · Temperature: 20°C
Fixative
Formalin

Allisa Song

Verified customer

Submitted Feb 26 2016

Application
Immunohistochemistry (PFA perfusion fixed frozen sections)
Blocking step
BSA+NGS as blocking agent for 1 hour(s) and 0 minute(s) · Concentration: 1% · Temperature: 25°C
Antigen retrieval step
None
Sample
Mouse Tissue sections (Cortex)
Specification
Cortex
Permeabilization
Yes - 0.3% Triton
Fixative
Paraformaldehyde

Abcam user community

Verified customer

Submitted Mar 18 2014

Application
Immunohistochemistry free floating
Sample
Rat Tissue sections (Brain)
Specification
Brain

Dr. Kouichi Nakamura

Verified customer

Submitted Mar 24 2011

Answer

I have contacted our accounting department and you will be issued a refund for your order for ab11137. This process does take a couple of weeks and if you have any questions regarding the refund please email: accounts@abcam.com If you have any future questions, please contact us again. Have a good weekend!

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Question

Sorry for my delay to give you this letter as a reply about the antibody problem. Except of busying on other experiments I have to repeat testing on this Prodynorphin antibody by all ways I can try and make sure it could not be our faults. Now we doubt this antibody is not good for mouse tissue detection and we have to ask a replacement or refund. Anyway I am going to give the descriptions based on your questions as follows. ProDynorphin antibody Cat#ab11137, Lot number (located on the vial) :75613. Purchase order number: 72932R 1.The problem No staining 2.On what material are you testing the antibody in IHC? Mouse brain and spinal cord tissue. 3. How did you fix the samples? The tissue was fixed by immersion in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS pH 7.4 for 4-6 hr at 4°C and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose PBS for 2 ds at 4°C. 4.Did you apply antigen retrieval step? Microwave Method. Slides are in 0.01 M tri-sodium citrate buffer pH 6.0 retrieved for 15 minutes once the temperature has reached 98°C. 5. How did you block the unspecific binding sites? Tissue sections were incubated for 2 hr at room temperature in a blocking solution of 2 % normal donkey serum in PBS with 0.3% Triton-X100. 6. Primary antibody specification (in which species was it raised against)? what dilution(s) have you tested this antibody? incubation time, wash steps (multiple short washes are more effective than fewer longer wash steps)? The primary antibody is a Rabbit polyclonal one. After blocking I incubated tissue overnight at 4°C in the primary antiserum and I have test this antibody by 1:200,1:400,1:500,1:1000 and 1:1500. I always use 0.01M PBS pH 7.4 3 x 10 min for washing. 7. Do you know whether the problems you are experiencing come from the secondary? What detection method are you using? The sections were processed with a biotinylated donkey anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Jackson; 1:200), followed by the Cy3-cogugated streptavidin (Jackson; 1:1,000). This system has been used on many antibodies in my hand and worked very well. 8. Background staining at lease provide an image of your staining. See attached. 9. Which detection system did you use? See the item 7. I answered there. 10. Did you apply positive and negative controls along with the samples? Please specify. I used negative control along with the samples which use PBS to replace the primary antibody. 11. Did you apply positive and negative controls along with the samples? Please specify. Positive control: use tissues which have been demonstrated are rich in prodynorphin and other related molecules to test.( attached including Dorsal raphe nucleus and spinal dorsal horn.) Negative control: Instead of primary antibody, use buffer in which the primary antibody was diluted. 12. Optimization attempts .How many times have you tried the IHC? Do you obtain the same results every time? What steps have you altered? At least 5 times. Same negative results every time. Use microwave method to get antigen retrieval or try to use different second antibodies from 2 different companies. Attached 3 images. Image 1 is from what I did by using this antibody. Image 2 is a figure that I did recently. I picked it up randomly and just want to show that I really perform immunostaining a lot and I can provide more than enough similar staff from my hand. Image 3 is a image from The Journal of Neuroscience, September 10, 2003, 23(23):8370-8379 and I want to use it as an example. Best regards,

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Answer

Thank you for your patience and the details that you have provided us with. To our knowledge, this antibody has only been tested for application in IHC-frozen sections. We do not know how the antibody works in paraformaldehyde or formalin-fixed sections. My suggestion would be to try fixation in acetone or ethanol. However, I can offer you a refund if you wish, please let me know.

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