The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/1000 - 1/2000. Detects a band of approximately 44, 55, 66 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 55 kDa).
1/3000. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.0 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Seems to be involved in cell adhesion through trans-homophilic and -heterophilic interactions, the latter including specifically interactions with PVRL2/nectin-1. Does not act as receptor for alpha-herpesvirus entry into cells.
Predominantly expressed in placenta. Not detected in normal breast epithelium but expressed in breast carcinoma.
Involvement in disease
Defects in PVRL4 are the cause of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type 1 (EDSS1) [MIM:613573]. EDSS1 is a form of ectodermal dysplasia, a heterogeneous group of disorders due to abnormal development of two or more ectodermal structures. EDSS1 is characterized by the association of hair and teeth abnormalities with cutaneous syndactyly of the hands and/or feet. Hair morphologic abnormalities include twists at irregular intervals (pilli torti) and swelling along the shafts, particularly associated with areas of breakage. Dental findings consist of abnormally widely spaced teeth, with peg-shaped and conical crowns. Patients have normal sweating.
Belongs to the nectin family. Contains 2 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains. Contains 1 Ig-like V-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain.
The soluble form is produced by proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface (shedding), probably by ADAM17/TACE.
Cell membrane. Cell junction > adherens junction. Colocalizes with MLLT4 at cadherin-based adherens junctions and Secreted. The secreted form is found in breast tumor patients.
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Human placenta tissue labeling PVRL4 with ab192033 at 1/3000 dilution followed by pre-diluted HRP Polymer for Rabbit IgG secondary antibody and counter-stained with Hematoxylin. Inset: Negative control: using PBS instead of primary antibody.
Zhang Y et al. High expression of Nectin-4 is associated with unfavorable prognosis in gastric cancer. Oncol Lett15:8789-8795 (2018).
Read more (PubMed: 29805618) »
Nishiwada S et al. Nectin-4 expression contributes to tumor proliferation, angiogenesis and patient prognosis in human pancreatic cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res34:30 (2015).
Read more (PubMed: 25888293) »