May be involved in the sorting of secreted proteins (By similarity). May be involved in pre-B-cell growth. Antiretroviral defense protein, that blocks release of retrovirus from the cell surface. Depleted unpon HIV-1 infection by viral VPU protein through 20S proteasome degradation. Depleted upon infection by human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. May play a role in B-cell activation in rheumatoid arthritis.
Predominantly expressed in liver, lung, heart and placenta. Lower levels in pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle and brain. Overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells. Highly expressed during B-cell development, from pro-B precursors to plasma cells. Highly expressed on T-cells, monocytes, NK cells and dendritic cells (at protein level).
Belongs to the tetherin family.
The extracellular coiled coil domain is important for virus retention at the cell surface and prevention of virus spreading.
Monoubiquitinated by KSHV E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase K5, leading to its targeting to late endosomes and degradation.
Golgi apparatus > trans-Golgi network. Cell membrane. Cell membrane. Late endosome. Targeted to late endosomes upon KSHV infection and subsequent ubiquitination. Targeted to the trans-Golgi network by viral VPU protein.