The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
>90% by SDS-PAGE.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein on reconstitution (0.1% HSA or BSA).
Celiac disease 3
Cytotoxic T cell associated 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4, soluble isoform, included
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 short spliced form
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated serine esterase 4
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte protein 4
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 12
Ligand and transmembrane spliced cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4
Inhibitory receptor acting as a major negative regulator of T-cell responses. The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory coreceptor CD28.
Widely expressed with highest levels in lymphoid tissues. Detected in activated T-cells where expression levels are 30- to 50-fold less than CD28, the stimulatory coreceptor, on the cell surface following activation.
Involvement in disease
Genetic variation in CTLA4 influences susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [MIM:152700]. SLE is a chronic, inflammatory and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue. It affects principally the skin, joints, kidneys and serosal membranes. SLE is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. Note=Genetic variations in CTLA4 may influence susceptibility to Graves disease, an autoimmune disorder associated with overactivity of the thyroid gland and hyperthyroidism. Genetic variation in CTLA4 is the cause of susceptibility to diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 12 (IDDM12) [MIM:601388]. A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Genetic variation in CTLA4 is the cause of susceptibility to celiac disease type 3 (CELIAC3) [MIM:609755]. It is a multifactorial disorder of the small intestine that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. It is characterized by malabsorption resulting from inflammatory injury to the mucosa of the small intestine after the ingestion of wheat gluten or related rye and barley proteins. In its classic form, celiac disease is characterized in children by malabsorption and failure to thrive.