Hydrolyzes specifically phosphatidic acid (PA) to produce 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA; a potent bioactive lipid mediator) and fatty acid. Does not hydrolyze other phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or triacylglycerol (TG).
Present in intestine (at protein level). Expressed in colon, prostate, kidney, pancreas, ovary, testis, intestine, lung and pancreas. Expressed at lower level in brain, spleen and heart. In hair, it is prominently expressed in hair follicles, including the stem cell-rich bulge region.
Involvement in disease
Defects in LIPH are the cause of hypotrichosis localized autosomal recessive type 2 (LAH2) [MIM:604379]; also known as alopecia universalis congenita Mari type. A condition characterized by the presence of less than the normal amount of hair. Affected individuals have sparse or absent scalp, axillary and body hair and sparse eyebrows and eyelashes. Defects in LIPH are the cause of woolly hair autosomal recessive type 2 (ARWH2) [MIM:604379]. A hair shaft disorder characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Compared to normal curly hair that is observed in some populations, woolly hair grows slowly and stops growing after a few inches. Under light microscopy, woolly hair shows some structural anomalies, including trichorrexis nodosa and tapered ends. Some individuals may present with hypotrichosis.
Belongs to the AB hydrolase superfamily. Lipase family.