The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Binds to Human, mouse and rat TNF-R1 and less efficiently to TNF-R2. In the presence of cross-linking enhancer, TNF alpha shows a significantly higher affinity for TNF-R2 than for TNF-R1, mimicking the characteristics of membrane-bound TNF alpha.
Exerts its biological activity in a concentration range of 0.5-1ng/ml (WEHI 164 cells).
< 0.100 Eu/µg
>90% by SDS-PAGE.
Concentration information loading...
Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Store at -20ºC.
Constituent: 99% PBS
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
Reconstitute with 50µl sterile water to a final concentration of 1 mg/ml. Further dilutions should be made with medium containing 5% fetal calf serum. After reconstitution, prepare aliquots and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Differentiation inducing factor
Macrophage cytotoxic factor
TNF superfamily, member 2
TNF, macrophage derived
TNF, monocyte derived
Tumor necrosis factor
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
Tumor Necrosis Factor, Membrane Form
Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation.
Involvement in disease
Genetic variations in TNF are a cause of susceptibility psoriatic arthritis (PSORAS) [MIM:607507]. PSORAS is an inflammatory, seronegative arthritis associated with psoriasis. It is a heterogeneous disorder ranging from a mild, non-destructive disease to a severe, progressive, erosive arthropathy. Five types of psoriatic arthritis have been defined: asymmetrical oligoarthritis characterized by primary involvement of the small joints of the fingers or toes; asymmetrical arthritis which involves the joints of the extremities; symmetrical polyarthritis characterized by a rheumatoidlike pattern that can involve hands, wrists, ankles, and feet; arthritis mutilans, which is a rare but deforming and destructive condition; arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and spine (psoriatic spondylitis).
Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family.
The soluble form derives from the membrane form by proteolytic processing. The membrane form, but not the soluble form, is phosphorylated on serine residues. Dephosphorylation of the membrane form occurs by binding to soluble TNFRSF1A/TNFR1. O-glycosylated; glycans contain galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid.