Key features and details
- Produced recombinantly (animal-free) for high batch-to-batch consistency and long term security of supply
- Rabbit monoclonal [EPR18855] to RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) (Alexa Fluor® 647)
- Suitable for: ICC/IF, Flow Cyt
- Reacts with: Human
- Conjugation: Alexa Fluor® 647. Ex: 652nm, Em: 668nm
Product nameAnti-RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) antibody [EPR18855] (Alexa Fluor® 647)
See all RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS primary antibodies
DescriptionRabbit monoclonal [EPR18855] to RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) (Alexa Fluor® 647)
ConjugationAlexa Fluor® 647. Ex: 652nm, Em: 668nm
Tested applicationsSuitable for: ICC/IF, Flow Cytmore details
Species reactivityReacts with: Human
Predicted to work with: Mouse, Rat, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Synthetic peptide within Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS aa 1600-1700 (phospho S2) (Cysteine residue). The exact sequence is proprietary.
Database link: P04050
- ICC/IF: HeLa cells. Flow Cyt: HeLa cells.
This product is a recombinant monoclonal antibody, which offers several advantages including:
- - High batch-to-batch consistency and reproducibility
- - Improved sensitivity and specificity
- - Long-term security of supply
- - Animal-free production
Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. For details on our patents, please refer to RabMAb® patents.
Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc, a Thermo Fisher Scientific Company. The Alexa Fluor® dye included in this product is provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. As this product contains the Alexa Fluor® dye, the purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). As this product contains the Alexa Fluor® dye the sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components, or any materials made using the product or its components, in any activity to generate revenue, which may include, but is not limited to use of the product or its components: in manufacturing; (ii) to provide a service, information, or data in return for payment (iii) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; or (iv) for resale, regardless of whether they are sold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than research, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5781 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reproducibility is key to advancing scientific discovery and accelerating scientists’ next breakthrough.
Abcam is leading the way with our range of recombinant antibodies, knockout-validated antibodies and knockout cell lines, all of which support improved reproducibility.
We are also planning to innovate the way in which we present recommended applications and species on our product datasheets, so that only applications & species that have been tested in our own labs, our suppliers or by selected trusted collaborators are covered by our Abpromise™ guarantee.
In preparation for this, we have started to update the applications & species that this product is Abpromise guaranteed for.
We are also updating the applications & species that this product has been “predicted to work with,” however this information is not covered by our Abpromise guarantee.
Applications & species from publications and Abreviews that have not been tested in our own labs or in those of our suppliers are not covered by the Abpromise guarantee.
Please check that this product meets your needs before purchasing. If you have any questions, special requirements or concerns, please send us an inquiry and/or contact our Support team ahead of purchase. Recommended alternatives for this product can be found below, as well as customer reviews and Q&As.
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle. Stable for 12 months at -20°C. Store In the Dark.
Storage bufferpH: 7.40
Preservative: 0.02% Sodium azide
Constituents: 30% Glycerol, 1% BSA, PBS
Concentration information loading...
PurityProtein A purified
- Anti-RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) antibody [EPR18855] (ab193468)
- Anti-RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) antibody [EPR18855] (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab237279)
- Anti-RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) antibody [EPR18855] (PE) (ab237281)
- Anti-RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) antibody [EPR18855] - BSA and Azide free (ab238450)
Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab237280 in the following tested applications.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
This product gave a positive signal in HeLa fixed with 4% formaldehyde (10 min) and 100% methanol (5 min).
FunctionDNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing. Acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the RNA polymerase beta' chain family.
DomainThe C-terminal domain (CTD) serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing.
modificationsThe tandem heptapeptide repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) can be highly phosphorylated. The phosphorylation activates Pol II. Phosphorylation occurs mainly at residues 'Ser-2' and 'Ser-5' of the heptapeptide repeat and is mediated, at least, by CDK7 and CDK9. CDK7 phosphorylation of POLR2A associated with DNA promotes transcription initiation by triggering dissociation from DNA. Phosphorylation also takes place at 'Ser-7' of the heptapeptide repeat, which is required for efficient transcription of snRNA genes and processing of the transcripts. The phosphorylation state is believed to result from the balanced action of site-specific CTD kinases and phosphatases, and a 'CTD code' that specifies the position of Pol II within the transcription cycle has been proposed. Dephosphorylated by the protein phosphatase CTDSP1.
Among tandem heptapeptide repeats of the C-terminal domain (CTD) some do not match the Y-S-P-T-S-P-S consensus, the seventh serine residue 'Ser-7' being replaced by a lysine. 'Lys-7' in these non-consensus heptapeptide repeats can be alternatively acetylated, methylated and dimethylated. EP300 is one of the enzyme able to acetylate 'Lys-7'. Acetylation at 'Lys-7' of non-consensus heptapeptide repeats is associated with 'Ser-2' phosphorylation and active transcription. It may regulate initiation or early elongation steps of transcription specially for inducible genes.
Methylated at Arg-1810 prior to transcription initiation when the CTD is hypophosphorylated, phosphorylation at Ser-1805 and Ser-1808 preventing this methylation. Symmetrically or asymmetrically dimethylated at Arg-1810 by PRMT5 and CARM1 respectively. Symmetric or asymmetric dimethylation modulates interactions with CTD-binding proteins like SMN1/SMN2 and TDRD3. SMN1/SMN2 interacts preferentially with the symmetrically dimethylated form while TDRD3 interacts with the asymmetric form. Through the recruitment of SMN1/SMN2, symmetric dimethylation is required for resolving RNA-DNA hybrids created by RNA polymerase II, that form R-loop in transcription terminal regions, an important step in proper transcription termination. CTD dimethylation may also facilitate the expression of select RNAs. Among tandem heptapeptide repeats of the C-terminal domain (CTD) some do not match the Y-S-P-T-S-P-S consensus, the seventh serine residue 'Ser-7' being replaced by a lysine. 'Lys-7' in these non-consensus heptapeptide repeats can be alternatively acetylated, methylated and dimethylated. Methylation occurs in the earliest transcription stages and precedes or is concomitant to 'Ser-5' and 'Ser-7' phosphorylation.
Ubiquitinated by WWP2 leading to proteasomal degradation (By similarity). Following UV treatment, the elongating form of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol IIo) is ubiquitinated UV damage sites without leading to degradation: ubiquitination is facilitated by KIAA1530/UVSSA and promotes RNA pol IIo backtracking to allow access to the nucleotide excision repair machinery.
- Information by UniProt
- DNA directed RNA polymerase II A antibody
- DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit RNA polymerase II 220 kd subunit antibody
- DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A antibody
Overlay histogram showing HeLa cells stained with ab237280 (red line). The cells were fixed with 4% formaldehyde (10 min) and then permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Triton X-100 for 15 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS/10% normal Goat serum to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followed by the antibody (ab237280) (1x106 in 100 µl at 0.2 µg/ml (1/2500 dilution)) for 30 min at 22°C.
Isotype control antibody (black line) was Rabbit IgG (monoclonal) Alexa Fluor® 647 (ab199093) used at the same concentration and conditions as the primary antibody. Unlabeled sample (blue line) was also used as a control. Acquisition of >5,000 events were collected using a 40 mW Red laser (640nm) and 670/14 bandpass filter.
This antibody gave a positive signal in HeLa cells fixed with 80% methanol (5 min)/permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Triton X-100 for 15 min used under the same conditions.
ab237280 staining RNA polymerase II CTD repeat YSPTSPS (phospho S2) in HeLa cells. The cells were fixed with 100% methanol (5 min), permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 for 5 minutes and then blocked with 1% BSA/10% normal goat serum/0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h. The cells were then incubated overnight at +4°C with ab237280 at 1/100 dilution (shown in red) and ab195887, Mouse monoclonal to alpha Tubulin (Alexa Fluor® 488), at 1/250 dilution (shown in green). Nuclear DNA was labeled with DAPI (shown in blue).
Image was taken with a confocal microscope (Leica-Microsystems, TCS SP8).
This product also gave a positive signal under the same testing conditions in HeLa cells fixed with 4% formaldehyde (10 min).
To our knowledge, customised protocols are not required for this product. Please try the standard protocols listed below and let us know how you get on.
ab237280 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.