Endoribonuclease that functions in the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. In INF treated and virus infected cells, RNASEL probably mediates its antiviral effects through a combination of direct cleavage of single-stranded viral RNAs, inhibition of protein synthesis through the degradation of rRNA, induction of apoptosis, and induction of other antiviral genes. RNASEL mediated apoptosis is the result of a JNK-dependent stress-response pathway leading to cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, activation of RNASEL could lead to elimination of virus infected cells under some circumstances. Might play a central role in the regulation of mRNA turnover.
Highly expressed in spleen and thymus followed by prostate, testis, uterus, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocytes.
Involvement in disease
Prostate cancer, hereditary, 1 (HPC1) [MIM:601518]: A condition associated with familial predisposition to cancer of the prostate. Most prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas that develop in the acini of the prostatic ducts. Other rare histopathologic types of prostate cancer that occur in approximately 5% of patients include small cell carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, prostatic ductal carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma (basaloid), signet-ring cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Contains 9 ANK repeats. Contains 1 KEN domain. Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
The nine ankyrin repeats also called 2-5A sensor constitute the N-terminus 2-5A binding domain. The protein kinase domain is predicted to be catalytically inactive. It allows the homodimerization. The ribonuclease domain is located in the C-terminus. A single active nuclease domain in a dimer is sufficient for ribonuclease activity.