The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/500 - 1/2000. Detects a band of approximately 52 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 52 kDa).
1/200 - 1/1000.
1/200 - 1/400.
ab170190 - Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
1/200 - 1/1000.
Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal carcinoma.
Expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, heart and placenta.
Belongs to the dwarfin/SMAD family. Contains 1 MH1 (MAD homology 1) domain. Contains 1 MH2 (MAD homology 2) domain.
Phosphorylated on one or several of Thr-220, Ser-245, Ser-250, and Ser-255. In response to TGF-beta, phosphorylated on Ser-465/467 by TGF-beta and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Able to interact with SMURF2 when phosphorylated on Ser-465/467, recruiting other proteins, such as SNON, for degradation. In response to decorin, the naturally occurring inhibitor of TGF-beta signaling, phosphorylated on Ser-240 by CaMK2. Phosphorylated by MAPK3 upon EGF stimulation; which increases transcriptional activity and stability, and is blocked by calmodulin. In response to TGF-beta, ubiquitinated by NEDD4L; which promotes its degradation. Acetylated on Lys-19 by coactivators in response to TGF-beta signaling, which increases transcriptional activity. Isoform short: Acetylation increases DNA binding activity in vitro and enhances its association with target promoters in vivo. Acetylation in the nucleus by EP300 is enhanced by TGF-beta.
Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear in the absence of TGF-beta. On TGF-beta stimulation, migrates to the nucleus when complexed with SMAD4. On dephosphorylation by phosphatase PPM1A, released from the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, and exported out of the nucleus by interaction with RANBP1.
Loeffler I et al. FSP1-specific SMAD2 knockout in renal tubular, endothelial, and interstitial cells reduces fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in murine STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy. Cell Tissue Res372:115-133 (2018).
Read more (PubMed: 29209813) »
Fang L et al. Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B overexpression is associated with the development and progression of glioma. Int J Mol Med38:172-82 (2016).
Read more (PubMed: 27246838) »