The antibody was affinity purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity chromatography using epitope specific phosphopeptide. The antibody against non phosphopeptide was removed by chromatography using non phosphopeptide corresponding to the phosphorylation site.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
1/500 - 1/1000. Detects a band of approximately 48 kDa.
SMAD is a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. They mediate the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulate multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation.
Note: Cytoplasmic in the absence of ligand. Migrates to the nucleus when complexed with SMAD4.
Chen H et al. Shenqiwan Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting TGF-ß1/Smads Signaling Pathway. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med2017:7187038 (2017).
Read more (PubMed: 28638433) »
Ko JW et al. Pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) suppresses cigarette smoke-induced fibrotic response via transforming growth factor-ß1/Smad family member 2/3 signaling. Lab Anim Res33:76-83 (2017).
Read more (PubMed: 28747971) »