Central component of cohesin, a complex required for chromosome cohesion during the cell cycle. The cohesin complex may form a large proteinaceous ring within which sister chromatids can be trapped. At anaphase, the complex is cleaved and dissociates from chromatin, allowing sister chromatids to segregate. Cohesion is coupled to DNA replication and is involved in DNA repair. The cohesin complex plays also an important role in spindle pole assembly during mitosis and in chromosomes movement.
Involvement in disease
Defects in SMC3 are the cause of Cornelia de Lange syndrome type 3 (CDLS3) [MIM:610759]. CDLS is a dominantly inherited multisystem developmental disorder characterized by growth and cognitive retardation, abnormalities of the upper limbs, gastroesophageal dysfunction, cardiac, ophthalmologic and genitourinary anomalies, hirsutism, and characteristic facial features. CDSL3 is a mild form with absence of major structural anomalies typically associated with CDLS. The phenotype in some instances approaches that of apparently non-syndromic mental retardation.
Belongs to the SMC family. SMC3 subfamily.
The flexible hinge domain, which separates the large intramolecular coiled coil regions, allows the heterotypic interaction with the corresponding domain of SMC1A or SMC1B, forming a V-shaped heterodimer. The two heads of the heterodimer are then connected by different ends of the cleavable RAD21 protein, forming a ring structure.
Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Acetylation at Lys-105 and Lys-106 by ESCO1 is important for genome stability and S phase sister chromatid cohesion. Regulated by DSCC1, it is required for processive DNA synthesis, coupling sister chromatid cohesion establishment during S phase to DNA replication.
Nucleus. Chromosome. Chromosome > centromere. Associates with chromatin. Before prophase it is scattered along chromosome arms. During prophase, most of cohesin complexes dissociate from chromatin probably because of phosphorylation by PLK, except at centromeres, where cohesin complexes remain. At anaphase, the RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex is cleaved, leading to the dissociation of the complex from chromosomes, allowing chromosome separation.
Information by UniProt
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