Overview

  • Product name
    Anti-Tau (phospho T231) antibody [EPR2488]
    See all Tau primary antibodies
  • Description
    Rabbit monoclonal [EPR2488] to Tau (phospho T231)
  • Host species
    Rabbit
  • Specificity
    ab151559 only detects Tau phosphorylated on Threonine 231.
  • Tested applications
    Suitable for: WB, IP, IHC-Pmore details
  • Species reactivity
    Reacts with: Mouse, Rat, Human
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide within Human Tau aa 200-300. The exact sequence is proprietary.
    (Peptide available as ab242015)

  • Positive control
    • WB: Human hippocampus, C57 and SH-SY5Y treated with sorbitol whole cell lysates; Rat cerebral cortex lysate. IHC-P: Human Alzheimer hippocampus tissue; Human, rat and mouse cerebrum tissues. IP: Rat cerebral cortex lysate.
  • General notes

    A trial size is available to purchase for this antibody. 

    This is the corresponding antibody for ab204779.

    Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. For details on our patents, please refer to RabMab® patents

    We are constantly working hard to ensure we provide our customers with best in class antibodies. As a result of this work we are pleased to now offer this antibody in purified format. We are in the process of updating our datasheets. The purified format is designated 'PUR' on our product labels. If you have any questions regarding this update, please contact our Scientific Support team.

    This product is a recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody.

Properties

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab151559 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
WB 1/1000 - 1/10000. Predicted molecular weight: 46 kDa.Can be blocked with Human Tau peptide (ab242015).
IP 1/20.

For unpurified use at 1/50 dilution.

IHC-P 1/500. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.

See IHC antigen retrieval protocols.

For unpurified use at 1/200 dilution.
 

Target

  • Function
    Promotes microtubule assembly and stability, and might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N-terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker protein between both. Axonal polarity is predetermined by tau localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization.
  • Tissue specificity
    Expressed in neurons. Isoform PNS-tau is expressed in the peripheral nervous system while the others are expressed in the central nervous system.
  • Involvement in disease
    Note=In Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P-TAU).
    Defects in MAPT are a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [MIM:600274]; also called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) or historically termed Pick complex. This form of frontotemporal dementia is characterized by presenile dementia with behavioral changes, deterioration of cognitive capacities and loss of memory. In some cases, parkinsonian symptoms are prominent. Neuropathological changes include frontotemporal atrophy often associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, amygdala. In most cases, protein tau deposits are found in glial cells and/or neurons.
    Defects in MAPT are a cause of Pick disease of the brain (PIDB) [MIM:172700]. It is a rare form of dementia pathologically defined by severe atrophy, neuronal loss and gliosis. It is characterized by the occurrence of tau-positive inclusions, swollen neurons (Pick cells) and argentophilic neuronal inclusions known as Pick bodies that disproportionally affect the frontal and temporal cortical regions. Clinical features include aphasia, apraxia, confusion, anomia, memory loss and personality deterioration.
    Note=Defects in MAPT are a cause of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). It is marked by extrapyramidal signs and apraxia and can be associated with memory loss. Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease.
    Defects in MAPT are a cause of progressive supranuclear palsy type 1 (PSNP1) [MIM:601104, 260540]; also abbreviated as PSP and also known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. PSNP1 is characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome, supranuclear gaze palsy, pyramidal tract dysfunction, pseudobulbar signs and cognitive capacities deterioration. Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis but no amyloid plaques are found in diseased brains. Most cases appear to be sporadic, with a significant association with a common haplotype including the MAPT gene and the flanking regions. Familial cases show an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission with incomplete penetrance; genetic analysis of a few cases showed the occurrence of tau mutations, including a deletion of Asn-613.
  • Sequence similarities
    Contains 4 Tau/MAP repeats.
  • Developmental stage
    Four-repeat (type II) tau is expressed in an adult-specific manner and is not found in fetal brain, whereas three-repeat (type I) tau is found in both adult and fetal brain.
  • Domain
    The tau/MAP repeat binds to tubulin. Type I isoforms contain 3 repeats while type II isoforms contain 4 repeats.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    Phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues in S-P or T-P motifs by proline-directed protein kinases (PDPK: CDK1, CDK5, GSK-3, MAPK) (only 2-3 sites per protein in interphase, seven-fold increase in mitosis, and in PHF-tau), and at serine residues in K-X-G-S motifs by MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) in Alzheimer diseased brains. Phosphorylation decreases with age. Phosphorylation within tau's repeat domain or in flanking regions seems to reduce tau's interaction with, respectively, microtubules or plasma membrane components. Phosphorylation on Ser-610, Ser-622, Ser-641 and Ser-673 in several isoforms during mitosis.
    Polyubiquitinated. Requires functional TRAF6 and may provoke SQSTM1-dependent degradation by the proteasome (By similarity). PHF-tau can be modified by three different forms of polyubiquitination. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination is the major form, 'Lys-6'-linked and 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitination also occur.
    Glycation of PHF-tau, but not normal brain tau. Glycation is a non-enzymatic post-translational modification that involves a covalent linkage between a sugar and an amino group of a protein molecule forming ketoamine. Subsequent oxidation, fragmentation and/or cross-linking of ketoamine leads to the production of advanced glycation endproducts (AGES). Glycation may play a role in stabilizing PHF aggregation leading to tangle formation in AD.
  • Cellular localization
    Cytoplasm > cytosol. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cell projection > axon. Mostly found in the axons of neurons, in the cytosol and in association with plasma membrane components.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links
  • Form
    There are 9 isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
  • Alternative names
    • AI413597 antibody
    • AW045860 antibody
    • DDPAC antibody
    • FLJ31424 antibody
    • FTDP 17 antibody
    • G protein beta1/gamma2 subunit interacting factor 1 antibody
    • MAPT antibody
    • MAPTL antibody
    • MGC134287 antibody
    • MGC138549 antibody
    • MGC156663 antibody
    • Microtubule associated protein tau antibody
    • Microtubule associated protein tau isoform 4 antibody
    • Microtubule-associated protein tau antibody
    • MSTD antibody
    • Mtapt antibody
    • MTBT1 antibody
    • MTBT2 antibody
    • Neurofibrillary tangle protein antibody
    • Paired helical filament tau antibody
    • Paired helical filament-tau antibody
    • PHF tau antibody
    • PHF-tau antibody
    • PPND antibody
    • PPP1R103 antibody
    • Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 103 antibody
    • pTau antibody
    • RNPTAU antibody
    • TAU antibody
    • TAU_HUMAN antibody
    • Tauopathy and respiratory failure, included antibody
    see all

Images

  • All lanes : Anti-Tau (phospho T231) antibody [EPR2488] (ab151559) at 1/1000 dilution (unpurified)

    Lane 1 : SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cell line from bone marrow) cell lysate, untreated
    Lane 2 : SH-SY5Y cell
    lysate, treated with sorbitol

    Lysates/proteins at 10 µg per lane.

    Predicted band size: 46 kDa

  • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) analysis of Rat cerebrum tissue sections labeling Tau with Purified ab151559 at 1:500 dilution (0.24 µg/ml). Heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed using citrate (pH 6.0)

  • ab151559 (purified) at 1:20 dilution (0.6µg) immunoprecipitating Tau in Rat cerebral cortex lysate.
    Lane 1 (input): Rat cerebral cortex lysate 10µg
    Lane 2 (+): ab151559 & Rat cerebral cortex lysate
    Lane 3 (-): Rabbit monoclonal IgG (ab172730) instead of ab151559 inRat cerebral cortex lysate
    For western blotting, VeriBlot for IP Detection Reagent (HRP) (ab131366) was used for detection at 1:1000 dilution.
    Blocking and diluting buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.

  • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) analysis of Mouse cerebrum tissue sections labeling Tau or Primary ab team with Purified ab151559 at 1:500 dilution (0.24 µg/ml). Heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed using citrate (pH 6.0)

  • All lanes : Anti-Tau (phospho T231) antibody [EPR2488] (ab151559) at 1/5000 dilution (Purified)

    Lane 1 : Rat cerebral cortex lysates with 5% NFDM/TBST
    Lane 2 : Rat cerebral cortex lysates. Then the membrane was incubated with phosphatase. with 5% NFDM/TBST

    Lysates/proteins at 15 µg per lane.

    Secondary
    All lanes : Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab97051) at 1/20000 dilution (Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, (H+L), Peroxidase conjugated)

    Predicted band size: 46 kDa
    Observed band size: 50-70 kDa why is the actual band size different from the predicted?

  • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) analysis of Human cerebrum tissue sections labeling Tau with Purified ab151559 at 1:500 dilution (0.24 µg/ml). Heat mediated antigen retrieval was performed using citrate (pH 6.0)

  • IHC image of Tau (phospho T231) staining in human Alzheimer hippocampus formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer. The section was then incubated with unpurified ab151559 at 1/2000 dilution for 2 hours at 21ºC. A biotin conjugated goat-anti-rabbit antibody was used as a secondary at 1/250. The section shows clear neurofibrillary tangles in a subset of neurons.

    See Abreview

  • IHC image of Tau (phospho T231) staining in human Alzheimer hippocampus formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH 6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 minutes. The section was then incubated with unpurified ab151559, 1/200 dilution, for 15 minutes at room temperature and detected using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. The section was then counterstained with haematoxylin and mounted with DPX.

    For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated) customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, primary antibody concentration and antibody incubation times.

  • All lanes : Anti-cardiac Troponin I antibody (ab1000) at 1/1000 dilution (purified)

    Lane 1 : C57 (cerebral cortex) whole cell lysate
    Lane 2 : C57 (cerebral cortex) whole cell lysate incubated with phosphatase

    Lysates/proteins at 15 µg per lane.

    Secondary
    All lanes : Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab97051) at 1/20000 dilution

    Predicted band size: 46 kDa
    Observed band size: 50-70 kDa why is the actual band size different from the predicted?


    Exposure time: 1 second


    Blocking and dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.

  • All lanes : Anti-Tau (phospho T231) antibody [EPR2488] (ab151559) at 1/1000 dilution (purified)

    Lane 1 : Human hippocampus tissue lysate
    Lane 2 : Human hippocampus tissue lysate incubated with phosphatase

    Lysates/proteins at 15 µg per lane.

    Secondary
    All lanes : Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab97051) at 1/20000 dilution

    Predicted band size: 46 kDa
    Observed band size: 50-70 kDa why is the actual band size different from the predicted?


    Exposure time: 1 second


    Blocking and dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.

References

This product has been referenced in:
  • Huang R  et al. Increased Ratio of Global O-GlcNAcylation to Tau Phosphorylation at Thr212 Site Is Associated With Better Memory Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Front Physiol 10:110 (2019). Read more (PubMed: 30837891) »
  • Fowler AJ  et al. Multikinase Abl/DDR/Src Inhibition Produces Optimal Effects for Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition in Neurodegeneration. Drugs R D 19:149-166 (2019). Read more (PubMed: 30919310) »
See all 12 Publications for this product

Customer reviews and Q&As

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1-2 of 2 Abreviews

Application
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections)
Blocking step
BSA as blocking agent for 10 minute(s) · Concentration: 1% · Temperature: 21°C
Antigen retrieval step
Heat mediated - Buffer/Enzyme Used: Citric acid
Sample
Human Tissue sections (Brain)
Specification
Brain
Permeabilization
No
Fixative
Formaldehyde

Mr. Carl Hobbs

Verified customer

Submitted Dec 12 2013

Application
Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections)
Blocking step
BSA as blocking agent for 10 minute(s) · Concentration: 1% · Temperature: 21°C
Antigen retrieval step
Heat mediated - Buffer/Enzyme Used: Citric acid
Sample
Human Tissue sections (Tau/APP transgenic mouse brain expressing human Ta)
Specification
Tau/APP transgenic mouse brain expressing human Ta
Permeabilization
No
Fixative
Formaldehyde

Mr. Carl Hobbs

Verified customer

Submitted Dec 12 2013

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