Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 22517745
Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid gland specific.
Involvement in disease
Defects in TG are the cause of congenital hypothyroidism due to dyshormonogenesis type 3 (CHDH3) [MIM:274700]. A disorder due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis, causing large goiters of elastic and soft consistency in the majority of patients. Although the degree of thyroid dysfunction varies considerably among patients with defective thyroglobulin synthesis, patients usually have a relatively high serum free triiodothyronine (T3) concentration with disproportionately low free tetraiodothyronine (T4) level. The maintenance of relatively high free T3 levels prevents profound tissue hypothyroidism except in brain and pituitary, which are dependent on T4 supply, resulting in neurologic and intellectual defects in some cases. Variations in TG are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease type 3 (AITD3) [MIM:608175]. AITDs including Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), are among the most common human autoimmune diseases. They are complex diseases, which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and nongenetic factors, such as infection.
Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family. Contains 11 thyroglobulin type-1 domains.
Sulfated tyrosines are desulfated during iodination.
Fernando R et al. Expression of thyrotropin receptor, thyroglobulin, sodium-iodide symporter, and thyroperoxidase by fibrocytes depends on AIRE. J Clin Endocrinol Metab99:E1236-44 (2014).
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Fernando R et al. Human fibrocytes coexpress thyroglobulin and thyrotropin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A109:7427-32 (2012).
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