The details of the immunogen for this antibody are not available.
Human peripheral blood leukocytes
ab171260 has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis. It has also been reported in blocking of LPS-induced cytokine production. For detection of peripheral monocytes, a three step staining protocol is recommended using purified anti-human TLR4 followed by biotin anti-mouse IgG and streptavidin-PE.
Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use 1µg for 105-8 cells.
A test is defined as the amount (μg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. It is highly recommended that for optimal staining of TLR4, whole blood be stained using the LWB protocol rather than Ficoll-gradient prepared PBMCs. The use of a density gradient appears to reduce the staining intensity significantly. ab170191 - Mouse monoclonal IgG2a, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by Ni(2+). These responses require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific.
Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.
Involvement in disease
Genetic variation in TLR4 is associated with age-related macular degeneration type 10 (ARMD10) [MIM:611488]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.
Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family. Contains 18 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats. Contains 1 LRRCT domain. Contains 1 TIR domain.
The TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4.
N-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS.
Flow cytometric analysis of Human peripheral blood cells (right histogram) labeling TLR4 with ab171260 and Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control (left histogram). Cells in the monocyte population were used for analysis.
Hiraku Y et al. Multi-walled carbon nanotube induces nitrative DNA damage in human lung epithelial cells via HMGB1-RAGE interaction and Toll-like receptor 9 activation. Part Fibre Toxicol13:16 (2016).
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