Vimentins are class-III intermediate filaments found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is attached to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, either laterally or terminally. Involved with LARP6 in the stabilization of type I collagen mRNAs for CO1A1 and CO1A2.
Highly expressed in fibroblasts, some expression in T- and B-lymphocytes, and little or no expression in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Expressed in many hormone-independent mammary carcinoma cell lines.
Involvement in disease
Belongs to the intermediate filament family.
The central alpha-helical coiled-coil rod region mediates elementary homodimerization. The [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif is a proposed target motif for cysteine S-nitrosylation mediated by the iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex.
Filament disassembly during mitosis is promoted by phosphorylation at Ser-55 as well as by nestin (By similarity). One of the most prominent phosphoproteins in various cells of mesenchymal origin. Phosphorylation is enhanced during cell division, at which time vimentin filaments are significantly reorganized. Phosphorylation by PKN1 inhibits the formation of filaments. Phosphorylated at Ser-56 by CDK5 during neutrophil secretion in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylated by STK33. O-glycosylated during cytokinesis at sites identical or close to phosphorylation sites, this interferes with the phosphorylation status. S-nitrosylation is induced by interferon-gamma and oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox)) possibly implicating the iNOS-S100A8/9 transnitrosylase complex.
Cultured dissociated cells from an e13 mouse brain), vimentin (green staining) can be seen forming the cytoskeleton of immature astrocyte progenitor cells. DAPI (blue staining) allows visualization of nuclei.
Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections) - Anti-Vimentin antibody (ab39376)Image from Schilte C et al, J Exp Med 207:429-42 (2010), Fig 4.
ab39376 at a 1/200 dilution staining Vimentin in mouse skin tissue by Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections). Tissue was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. Skin fibroblasts, but not hematopoietic cells, are infected in WT mice. Immunofluorescence was performed 1 day after ID infection with WT CHIKV at the site of inoculation into the ear. Cell nuclei were stained with DAPI.
Mulholland DJ et al. Pten loss and RAS/MAPK activation cooperate to promote EMT and metastasis initiated from prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells. Cancer Res72:1878-89 (2012).
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Schilte C et al. Type I IFN controls chikungunya virus via its action on nonhematopoietic cells. J Exp Med207:429-42 (2010).
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