1/100 - 1/1000. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol using 10mM Citrate buffer (pH6.0) or Tris-EDTA buffer (pH8.0)
1/100 - 1/1000.
Involved in global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) by acting as damage sensing and DNA-binding factor component of the XPC complex. Has only a low DNA repair activity by itself which is stimulated by RAD23B and RAD23A. Has a preference to bind DNA containing a short single-stranded segment but not to damaged oligonucleotides. This feature is proposed to be related to a dynamic sensor function: XPC can rapidly screen duplex DNA for non-hydrogen-bonded bases by forming a transient nucleoprotein intermediate complex which matures into a stable recognition complex through an intrinsic single-stranded DNA-binding activity. The XPC complex is proposed to represent the first factor bound at the sites of DNA damage and together with other core recognition factors, XPA, RPA and the TFIIH complex, is part of the pre-incision (or initial recognition) complex. The XPC complex recognizes a wide spectrum of damaged DNA characterized by distortions of the DNA helix such as single-stranded loops, mismatched bubbles or single stranded overhangs. The orientation of XPC complex binding appears to be crucial for inducing a productive NER. XPC complex is proposed to recognize and to interact with unpaired bases on the undamaged DNA strand which is followed by recruitment of the TFIIH complex and subsequent scanning for lesions in the opposite strand in a 5'-to-3' direction by the NER machinery. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) which are formed upon UV-induced DNA damage esacpe detection by the XPC complex due to a low degree of structural perurbation. Instead they are detected by the UV-DDB complex which in turn recruits and cooperates with the XPC complex in the respective DNA repair. In vitro, the XPC:RAD23B dimer is sufficient to initiate NER; it preferentially binds to cisplatin and UV-damaged double-stranded DNA and also binds to a variety of chemically and structurally diverse DNA adducts. XPC:RAD23B contacts DNA both 5' and 3' of a cisplatin lesion with a preference for the 5' side. XPC:RAD23B induces a bend in DNA upon binding. XPC:RAD23B stimulates the activity of DNA glycosylases TDG and SMUG1.
Involvement in disease
Defects in XPC are a cause of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) [MIM:278720]; also known as xeroderma pigmentosum III (XP3). XP-C is a rare human autosomal recessive disease characterized by solar sensitivity, high predisposition for developing cancers on areas exposed to sunlight and, in some cases, neurological abnormalities.
Belongs to the XPC family.
Phosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR. Ubiquitinated upon UV irradiation; the ubiquitination requires the UV-DDB complex, appears to be reversible and does not serve as a signal for degradation.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Omnipresent in the nucleus and consistently associates with and dissociates from DNA in the absence of DNA damage. Continuously shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which is impeded by the presence of NER lesions.